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Table 2 Measured and calculated values obtained from healthy impala (Aepyceros melampus) undergoing immobilisation and general anaesthesia using two different drug protocols

From: Blood acid-base status in impala (Aepyceros melampus) immobilised and maintained under total intravenous anaesthesia using two different drug protocols

Variable Unit Time 1 Time 2 P value
P-TMP P-EME P-TMP P-EME  
Mean ±SD Mean ±SD Mean ±SD Mean ±SD  
Times to sampling (from dart placement until sampling)
 Times to sampling min 16.8 ±7.0 19.2 ±5.6 150.4 ±5.7 151.8 ±6.3  
 T-test P value   P = 0.442 P = 0.613  
Basic clinical parameters at time of sampling  
 Heart rate Beats/min 122 ±40 79 ±37 57 ±9 59 ±11 <0.001
 Resp rate Breaths/min 9 ±5 9 ±2 10 ±2 10 ±2 0.316
 MAP mmHg 126 ±14 117 ±18 102 ±12 90 ±19 0.001
 Temperature °C 38.9 ±0.4 39.3 ±0.2 37.0 ±0.2 37.0 ±0.2 <0.001
Arterial blood acid base analysis  
 pH N/A 7.36 ±0.04 7.38 ±0.04 7.31 ±0.02 7.30 ±0.05 0.001
 HCO3 mEq/L 29.0 ±2.7 30.1 ±2.9 36.0 ±5.9 35.9 ±1.5 <0.001
mmol/L 29.0 ±2.7 30.1 ±2.9 36.0 ±5.9 35.9 ±1.5
 BE mEq/L 3.6 ±2.4 4.9 ±3.1 9.8 ±6.1 9.5 ±1.5 <0.001
mmol/L 3.6 ±2.4 4.9 ±3.1 9.8 ±6.1 9.5 ±1.5
 Lactate mEq/L 3.0 ±1.6 2.9 ±1.4 0.3 ±0.0 0.3 ±0.0 <0.001
mmol/L 3.0 ±1.6 2.9 ±1.4 0.3 ±0.0 0.3 ±0.0
Electrolytes  
 Na+ mEq/L 145.8 ±1.3 146.9 ±2.3 146.4 ±2.4 148.2 ±2.4 0.170
mmol/L 145.8 ±1.3 146.9 ±2.3 146.4 ±2.4 148.2 ±2.4
 K+ mEq/L 4.2 ±0.2 4.1 ±0.4 3.6 ±0.1 3.6 ±0.3 <0.001
mmol/L 4.2 ±0.2 4.1 ±0.4 3.6 ±0.1 3.6 ±0.3
 Ca++ mEq/L 1.1 ±0.1 1.1 ±0.1 1.1 ±0.1 1.1 ±0.1 0.307
mmol/L 0.55 ±0.05 0.55 ±0.05 0.55 ±0.05 0.55 ±0.05
 Cl mEq/L 107.4 ±3.1 106.6 ±2.8 103.9 ±2.6 106.3 ±2.4 0.046
mmol/L 107.4 ±3.1 106.6 ±2.8 103.9 ±2.6 106.3 ±2.4
 P mEq/L 2.2 ±0.4 2.2 ±0.5 2.0 ±0.5 2.2 ±0.5 0.606
mmol/L 2.2 ±0.4 2.2 ±0.5 2.0 ±0.5 2.2 ±0.5
Proteins
 Albumin g/dL 4.4 ±0.3 4.2 ±0.3 3.6 ±0.2 3.7 ±0.1 <0.001
 Globulin g/dL 1.8 ±0.3 1.6 ±0.3 1.5 ±0.3 1.4 ±0.2 0.003
 Haematocrit L/L 0.29 ±0.03 0.28 ±0.03 0.18 ±0.02 0.20 ±0.03 <0.001
 Haemoglobin g/dL 9.98 ±0.86 9.42 ±1.22 6.12 ±0.72 6.72 ±0.88 <0.001
Independent variables affecting pH
 PaCO2 mmHg 51.5 ±8.6 51.2 ±6.7 71.4 ±15.6 73.8 ±9.1 <0.001
 SIDa mEq/L 40.7 ±1.9 42.7 ±2.7 47.0 ±4.3 46.2 ±1.4 <0.001
mmol/L 40.1 ±1.9 42.1 ±2.7 46.4 ±4.3 45.7 ±1.6
 SIDe mEq/L 34.1 ±3.0 35.1 ±3.6 40.4 ±6.0 40.8 ±2.0 <0.001
mmol/L 34.1 ±3.0 35.1 ±3.6 40.4 ±6.0 40.8 ±2.0
 SIG mEq/L 6.6 ±3.3 7.5 ±1.8 6.5 ±3.2 5.5 ±2.2 0.243
mmol/L 6.0 ±3.2 7.0 ±1.4 6.0 ±3.2 5.0 ±2.2
 AG mEq/L 13.5 ±4.0 14.3 ±2.1 10.2 ±2.8 9.5 ±1.7 <0.001
mmol/L 13.5 ±4.0 14.3 ±2.1 10.2 ±2.8 9.5 ±1.7
 Atot mmol/L 16.4 ±1.2 15.7 ±1.2 13.8 ±1.1 14.3 ±1.0 <0.001
  1. Time1: sampling prior to maintenance of general anaesthesia; Time 2: sampling 1 min prior to ending general anaesthesia; P-TMP protocol using thiafentanil-medetomidine immobilisation and propofol-ketamine-medetomidine infusion for general anaesthesia maintenance, P-EME protocol using etorphine-medetomidine immobilisation and etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine infusion for general anaesthesia, P value level of significance estimated over time, min minute, Resp rate respiratory rate, MAP direct mean arterial blood pressure, HCO 3 bicarbonate ion, BE base excess, Na + sodium ion, K + potassium ion, Ca ++ calcium ion, Cl chloride ion, P phosphorus ion, PaCO 2 arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, SIDa apparent strong ion difference, SIDe effective strong ion difference, SIG strong ion gap, AG anion gap Atot total weak acids in plasma, mmHg millimetres mercury, g/dL grams per decilitre, mEq/L milliequivilent per litre, mg/dL milligrams per decilitre, mmol/L millimoles per litre