Skip to main content

Table 2 Least square means (LSM) and standard error (SE) of the brightness mode and pulsed-wave Doppler variables of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs in 17 healthy German Holstein cows using statistical model A, which considered farm and location

From: Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows

Variable n LSM ± SE HL LSM ± SE HR p location p farm
D (cm) 17 0.54 ± 0.02 0.54 ± 0.02 1.00 0.08
Vsyst (m/s) 17 0.35 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.02 0.04* 0.18
Vdiast (m/s) 17 0.12 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.01 0.06 0.35
Venddiast (m/s) 17 0.05 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01 0.34 0.82
Vrev (m/s) 5   0.10 ± 0.02   
Vmean (m/s) 17 0.13 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01 0.05* 0.63
PIa 16 2.18 ± 1.08 3.12 ± 1.38 0.10 0.09
RI 17 0.84 ± 0.02 0.95 ± 0.06 0.03* 0.24
BFa (ml/min) 17 177.40 ± 1.10 131.10 ± 1.20 0.14 0.31
PR (1/min) 17 77 ± 2 77 ± 3 0.84 0.06
  1. D vessel diameter, Vsyst maximum systolic velocity, Vdiast maximum diastolic velocity, Venddiast end-diastolic velocity, Vrev reverse velocity, Vmean maximum time-averaged mean velocity, PI persistence Index, RI resistance Index, BF blood flow rate, PR pulse frequency, HR right hind limb, HL left hind limb, p location differences between LSM of right and left hind limb, p farm F-test of differences between farms
  2. *significance (p < 0.05)
  3. amedian in the original scale, calculated from the LSM estimated in the log transformed scale