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Table 1 Reasons for non-vaccination or withdrawal from the vaccination protocol

From: “Why won’t they just vaccinate?” Horse owner risk perception and uptake of the Hendra virus vaccine

Theme Code N Description Example Comments
Attitude towards vaccine (n = 310) Side effects 91 Reference to side effects, whether general or specific The amount of horses either having a reaction or death from vaccination. (R17)
Cost 39 Reference to the cost of vaccination The cost of the vaccine. (R7)
Testing 40 Reference to the need for more testing of the vaccine or the lack of testing I’m not willing to vaccinate against Hendra until more testing is done on the vaccine (R14) Not enough research and the way it was rushed to market. (R41)
Safety 20 Reference to the safety of the vaccine Until it has been proved for 5 years I am not convinced it is safe. (R54)
Efficacy 13 Reference to the vaccine not working, Current vaccination is not proved sufficiently (R13)
Animal use 17 Reference to breeding animals and lack of safety, or issues with exporting vaccinated horses Have not heard any proof if safe to use in breeding animals (R12)
Hendra virus vaccine protocol 21 Reference to concern regarding the protocol, number of vaccines required, vet involvement The number of vaccines required and the frequency of them. (R21)
Licence 43 Reference to concern regarding the restricted licence for the vaccine Unregistered Vaccine. (R17)
Future intention 13 Indication that vaccination maybe reconsidered in the future If this is sorted in the future I will consider it more readily. (R14)
Attitude to vaccination 11 Indications of attitudes to vaccination in general or other vaccines for horses I do however regularly vaccinate for strangles and tetanus which I see as a bigger threat having had one of my horse contract strangles even after vaccinating. (R28)
Freedom of choice 2 Indication of desire to make own choice about whether to vaccinate I believe in pro-choice. (R46)
Risk assessment (n = 94) Risk assessment 70 Evidence of risk assessment, weighing up the odds, insights into where respondents feel the risk lies, includes the risk of side effects from the vaccine and the risk of Hendra virus infection They are not in contact with other horses. (R8) The chance of reaction is higher than the chance of catching Hendra when precautions are taken. (R43)
Biosecurity 10 Evidence of adoption or consideration of biosecurity practices Extremely low flying fox/bat population in our area and no contact with horse from neighbouring properties. Removal of all fruiting trees and regular monitoring of blossoming/flower native trees which coincide with paddock rotations. (R34)
Horse health 14 Reference to underlying horse health issues which precludes the vaccine being able to be used. One is not vaccinated as she is elderly and the risk of infection and contact with people is very low. (R32)
Attitude towards authorities (n = 36) Authorities 36 Reference to authorities, whether veterinarians or pharmaceutical companies, their behaviour, motivation Horses have died from this vaccine and the authorities are not acknowledging this fact!! (R142)
Other (n = 1) Other 1 Comments that do not fit in to current categories but still need to be considered. Availability (work full time during the week and compete full time on the weekends). (R22)