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Table 3 Diagnostic agreement (estimated as Cohen’s kappa) between two samples (a and b) of bruises from each of 81 slaughter pigs with multiple bruises

From: Gross and histopathological evaluation of human inflicted bruises in Danish slaughter pigs

Tissue layer Variable Kappa Lower95 Upper95 Level of agreement P-value
Dermis Hyper-leukocytosis 0.58 0.29 0.88 Moderate 0.0037
Leukocytes 0.43 0.23 0.64 Moderate 0.0002
Hemorrhage 0.29 -0.18 0.76 Not significant 0.1508
Subcutis Neutrophils 0.30 0.14 0.46 Fair 0.0000
Hyper-leukocytosis 0.29 -0.18 0.76 Not significant 0.5000
Macrophages 0.52 0.23 0.80 Moderate 0.0034
Hemorrhage -0.04 -0.77 0.70 Not significant 0.5395
Muscle Necrosis 0.14 -0.19 0.48 Not significant 0.2146
Neutrophils 0.32 0.12 0.53 Fair 0.0015
Macrophages 0.17 -0.06 0.40 Not significant 0.0806
Leukocytes in the interstitial space 0.43 0.15 0.71 Moderate 0.0077
Leukocytes present intramuscularly 0.40 0.18 0.62 Moderate 0.0008
Hyper-leukocytosis 0.00 -1.95 1.95 Not significant 0.5000
Hemorrhage 0.34 0.13 0.54 Fair 0.0012
  1. Limits of 95 % confidence interval not including zero and a P-value for kappa below 0.05 means there is some level of agreement between the test results of tissue samples a and b within the same pig. The level of agreement (fair, moderate) depends on the kappa value
  2. The agreement was based on histological variables within the dermis, subcutis and underlying muscle tissue of bruise a and bruise b