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Table 3 Concentrations, and ratios, of early biomarkers of renal damage in dogs, at the initiation (Week -1) and the end (Week 24) of a 24-wk period of consumption of PEGB at 4, 20 or 40 mg/kg/d. (Data are means ± SEM, n = 6/group; minima and maxima values are mentioned in parenthesis)

From: A mixed grape and blueberry extract is safe for dogs to consume

  PEGB
Biomarkers Units Control 4 mg/kg/d 20 mg/kg/d 40 mg/kg/d
Week -1 Week 24 Week -1 Week 24 Week -1 Week 24 Week -1 Week 24
Plasma CysC μg/mL 1.2 ± 0.1 (1.0–1.6) 1.1 ± 0.1 (0.7–1.7) 1.3 ± 0.2 (0.6–1.7) 1.2 ± 0.2 (0.5–1.8) 1.2 ± 0.1 (0.9–1.5) 1.2 ± 0.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.5 ± 0.2 (1.1–2.2) 1.3 ± 0.1 (0.9–1.6)
Urinary CysC/Creat ratio μg/g 19 ± 17 (0–105) 14 ± 10 (0–62) 5 ± 4 (0–20) 4 ± 1 (0–9) 27 ± 14 (3–96) 21 ± 12 (3–79) 12 ± 4 (2–26) 4 ± 1 (0–9)
Urinary Clu/Creat ratio ng/g 79 ± 20 (7–134) 135 ± 66 (6–443) 44 ± 13 (3–99) 94 ± 69 (10–437) 63 ± 28 (6–170) 56 ± 25 (12–175) 84 ± 23 (18–163) 47 ± 20 (9–132)
Urinary NGAL/Creat ratio ng/g 7.6 ± 3.0 (0.6–21.1) 7.2 ± 2.5 (1.2–16.5) 7.9 ± 4.5 (0.6–28.5) 4.9 ± 1.4 (0.9–9.5) 4.2 ± 1.8 (1.0–12.8) 3.5 ± 0.3 (2.5–4.0) 5.4 ± 1.0 (2.3–9.4) 4.6 ± 1.4 (1.8–10.0)