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Table 1 Plasma biomarkers of kidney damage in dogs, at the initiation (Week -1) and the end (Week 24) of a 24-wk period of consumption of PEGB at 4, 20 or 40 mg/kg/d. (Data are means ± SEM, n = 6/group; minima and maxima values are mentioned in parenthesis)

From: A mixed grape and blueberry extract is safe for dogs to consume

Biomarkers (reference values) Units Control PEGB
4 mg/kg/d 20 mg/kg/d 40 mg/kg/d
Week -1 Week 24 Week -1 Week 24 Week -1 Week 24 Week -1 Week 24
Creatinine (0.3–1.4) mg/dL 0.8 ± 0.1 (0.4–1.0) 0.8 ± 0.1 (0.5–1.0) 0.9 ± 0.1 (0.7–1.1) 0.7 ± 0.1 (0.6–0.9) 0.8 ± 0.1 (0.5–1.1) 0.8 ± 0.1 (0.5–1.3) 0.9 ± 0.1 (0.7–1.1) 0.8 ± 0.1 (0.5–0.9)
Blood urea nitrogen (7–25) mg/dL 14 ± 1 (11–15) 13 ± 1 (10–15) 12 ± 1 (8–15) 11 ± 1 (7–14) 10 ± 1 (8–10) 9 ± 1 (7–13) 12 ± 1 (10–17) 12 ± 1 (9–15)
Sodium (138–160) mmol/L 145 ± 2 (138–150) 142 ± 2 (137–147) 146 ± 2 (138–152) 142 ± 2 (136–148) 147 ± 1 (143–151) 142 ± 1 (138–146) 145 ± 1 (143–147) 146 ± 2 (140–151)
Potassium (3.7–5.8) mmol/L 4.7 ± 0.1 (4.4–5.1) 4.7 ± 0.3 (3.7–5.4) 4.4 ± 0.1 (3.8–4.7) 4.6 ± 0.2 (3.6–5.0) 4.5 ± 0.1 (4.2–4.9) 4.5 ± 0.2 (3.9–5.1) 4.6 ± 0.1 (4.4–4.9) 4.8 ± 0.3 (4.0–5.8)
Calcium (8.6–11.8) mg/dL 10.1 ± 0.2 (9.4–10.5) 10.1 ± 0.1 (9.8–10.7) 10.7 ± 0.2 (9.8–11) 10.4 ± 0.1 (10.0–10.8) 10.5 ± 0.3 (9.6–11.2) 10.4 ± 0.2 (9.8–10.8) 10.5 ± 0.1 (10.1–10.9) 10.5 ± 0.1 (10.1–10.8)
Phosphate (2.9–6.6) mg/dL 4.3 ± 0.2 (3.6–5.0) 4.2 ± 0.3 (3.3–4.9) 4.5 ± 0.3 (3.9–5.8) 4.4 ± 0.3 (3.3–5.2) 4.2 ± 0.2 (3.4–5.1) 4.4 ± 0.3 (3.6–5.1) 4.4 ± 0.2 (3.4–5.1) 4.2 ± 0.1 (3.8–4.6)
Albumin (2.5–4.4) g/dL 3.1 ± 0.2 (2.3–3.4) 3.2 ± 0.2 (2.6–3.6) 3.5 ± 0.1 (3.2–3.6) 3.3 ± 0.1 (2.7–3.6) 3.4 ± 0.2 (2.9–3.4) 3.3 ± 0.2 (2.3–3.9) 3.4 ± 0.1 (3.0–3.6) 3.4 ± 0.1 (3.3–3.7)