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Table 1 Post vaccination geometric mean (mean ± SD) antibody titers of chickens increased over time by booster vaccination with disparity in titer between vaccine carrier types used

From: Serological response and protection level evaluation in chickens exposed to grains coated with I2 Newcastle disease virus for effective oral vaccination of village chickens

Vaccine carrier type Post vaccination GM ± SD HI antibody titer (log2) chickens vaccinated by different methods at different ages in days (N = 15)
Day 28 Day 49 Day 77 Day 105 Day 119 Day 126
Naive <1f <1ab <1g <1d <1c no
NDI2 in water 3.2 ± 0.6 (15)a 5.7 ± 1.6 (15)c 4.7 ± 0.9 (15)ac 3.6 ± 0.9 (14)ab 7.1 ± 2.4 (14)a no
Untreated Wheat 1.6 ± 1.0 (15)b 2.4 ± 1.5 (15)d 1.8 ± 1.3 (15)bd 1.7 ± 0.9 (14)e 3.3 ± 1.2 (14)f no
Parboiled Wheat 2.3 ± 0.7 (15)b 2.6 ± 1.1 (15)d 2.1 ± 0.8 (15)bd 1.9 ± 0.8 (14)e 4.5 ± 2.1 (14)f no
Cracked Wheat 2.3 ± 1.0 (15)b 2.4 ± 1.1 (15)d 2.1 ± 1.4 (15)bd 2.0 ± 0.7 (14)e 3.3 ± 1.8 (14)f no
Untreated Sorghum 1.4 ± 0.6 (15)f 2.2 ± 0.8 (15)d 1.8 ± 0.8 (15)bd 1.4 ± 0.8 (15)e 2.4 ± 1.5 (15)ed no
Parboiled Sorghum 2.1 ± 0.7 (15)b 2.7 ± 0.8 (15)d 2.4 ± 0.9 (15)bd 1.5 ± 0.9 (15)e 4.4 ± 1.9 (15)f no
Cracked Sorghum 1.2 ± 1.0 (15)f 1.6 ± 1.1 (14)d 1.1 ± 0.9 (14)bd 0.4 ± 0.5 (14)gb 1.9 + 1.0 (14)ed no
Untreated Millet 1.3 ± 0.8 (15)b 2.4 ± 0.5 (13)d 2.3 ± 0.7 (13)bd 1.7 ± 0.8 (12)e 2.4 ± 1.8 (12)ed no
Parboiled Millet 1.4 ± 1.3 (15)b 2.4 ± 0.9 (15)d 2.3 ± 0.8 (15)bd 2.1 ± 0.9 (15)e 3.2 ± 2.0 (15)f no
Cracked millet 1.3 ± 0.5 (15)f 1.5 ± 0.6 (15)d 1.3 ± 1.0 (15)bd 2.1 ± 0.9 (15)e 2.5 ± 0.8 (14)ed no
Cracked Barely 1.6 ± 1.2 (15)b 2.4 ± 0.6 (15)d 1.7 ± 0.9 (15)bd 1.5 ± 0.9 (15)e no 2.5 ± 1.4 (15)ed
Parboiled barely 3.0 ± 1.3 (15)a 3.7 ± 1.9 (15)ab 3.6 ± 1.0 (15)e 2.4 ± 1.2 (15)fc no 5.1 ± 2.0 (15)g
Untreated Barely 1.7 ± 1.0 (15)b 2.5 ± 1.3 (15)d 2.4 ± 1.0 (15)bd 2.0 ± 1.0 (15)d no 2.8 ± 1.8 (15)ed
Cracked Maize 3.2 ± 1.2 (15)a 4.2. ± 2.1 (15)ab 3.9 ± 1.6 (15)ac 2.7 ± 1.1 (15)fc no 6.8 ± 1.4 (15)g
  1. Means with the same letters in the same column are not significantly different at 0.05 confidence level, “no” = sera not collected