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Table 6 Promising medicinal plants for treatment and prophylaxis of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and for modulation of the immune system and inflammation

From: Medicinal plants – prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review

Indication Traditional applications in initial sources 1 (number of references recommending the plant for the indication)a Peer-reviewed references (sum of points gathered in the scoring system2)b
Gastrointestinal tract Matricaria recutita L. (7) Allium sativum L. (41)
Foeniculum vulgare (L.) MILL. (6) Mentha x piperita L. (30)
Potentilla erecta (L.) RAEUSCH (5) Salvia officinalis L. (27)
Linum usitatissimum L. (5) Origanum vulgare L. (24)
Rubus fruticosus L. (5) Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE (18)
Thymus vulgaris L. (4) Matricaria recutita L. (15)
Quercus robur L. (4) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (14)
Mentha x piperita L. (4) Thymus vulgaris L. (13)
Urtica dioica L. (4) Foeniculum vulgare (L.) MILL. (7)
Vaccinium myrtillus L. (4) Carum carvi L. (6)
Salvia officinalis L. (4) Pimpinella anisum L. (6)
Carum carvi L. (4) Rumex sp. L. (6)
Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE (4) Urtica dioica L. (6)
Achillea millefolium L. (4)  
Respiratory tract Thymus vulgaris L. (7) Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH (10)
Pimpinella anisum L. (6) Thymus vulgaris L. (10)
Althaea officinalis L. (5) Althaea officinalis L. (8)
Cetraria islandica (L.) ACH. (5) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (5)
Primula veris L. (5) Salvia officinalis L. (5)
Foeniculum vulgare (L.) MILL. (4) Tussilago farfara L. (5)
Sambucus nigra L. (4) Urtica dioica L. (5)
Malva sylvestris L. (4) Achillea millefolium L. (4)
Allium sativum L. (4) Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE (4)
Picea abies (L.) H.KARST. (4) Sambucus nigra L. (4)
Modulation of immune system and inflammation Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH (2) Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH (41)
Salix sp. L. (2) Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE (26)
Thymus vulgaris L. (1) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (19)
Sambucus nigra L. (1) Origanum vulgare L. (19)
Urtica dioica L. (1) Allium sativum L. (18)
Malva sylvestris L. (1) Salvia officinalis L. (16)
Plantago lanceolata L. (1) Urtica dioica L. (15)
Allium sativum L. (1) Foeniculum vulgare (L.) MILL. (11)
Tilia cordata MILL/Tilia platyphyllos SCOP. (1) Matricaria recutita L. (11)
Artemisia absynthum L. (1) Malva sylvestris L . (9)
Verbascum sp. L. (1) Rumex sp. L. (9)
Armoracia rusticana PH. GÄRTN.(1)  
  1. 1initial sources = standard literature, based on traditional empiric knowledge and historical literature of veterinary [4245], and human phytotherapy [46], peer-reviewed publications of European [47] and Swiss ethnoveterinary medicine [36, 38] and a report of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) [48] focusing on the use of plants as feed additives in animal production; 2Score = 3 x (number of proven effects in clinical studies – number disproof of effects in clinical studies) + 2 x (number of proven effects in in vivo studies - number of disproof of effects in in vivo studies) + 1 x (number of proven effects in in vitro studies - number of disproof of effects of in vitro studies) agastrointestinal tract: all plant species recommended for QA 4 times or more in the initial sources, ordered by incidence of recommendation by different authors as listed in detail in Additional file 2; arespiratory tract: all plant species recommended for QR 4 times or more in the initial sources, ordered by incidence of recommendation by different authors as listed in detail in Additional file 2; aModulation of immune system and inflammation: includes all plant species recommended for QL 1 time or more in the initial sources, ordered by incidence of recommendation by different authors as presented in file 2 in greater detail; bgastrointestinal tract: includes all plant species gathered for QA with a minimum score of 6 ordered by sum of points the plant species gathered; brespiratory tract: includes all plant species gathered for QR with a minimum score of 4, ordered by sum of points the plant species gathered; bModulation of immune system and inflammation: includes all plant species gathered for QL with a minimum score of 9, ordered by sum of points the plant species gathered; bold letters = plant species recommended in initial sources and in peer-reviewed references for same indication