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Table 5 Assessmenta of medicinal plants based on peer-reviewed referencesb of the last 20 years aiming the modulation of the immune system and inflammation

From: Medicinal plants – prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review

Plant species Number of references Type of reference Immunostimulant Antiinflammatory Analgesic Hypothesis proved
    + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o
Achillea millefolium L. 2 in vitro     21         
2 in vivo + clinical    12    13    14    
Agrimonia eupatoria L. 0 in vitro             
1 in vivo + clinical     15         
Allium sativum L. 4 in vitro 16 17   28         
5 in vivo + clinical 59    110         
Camellia sinensis (L). KUNTZE 14 in vitro 311    1212         
5 in vivo + clinical 213    214    115      
Cetraria islandica (L.) ACH. 2 in vitro 216            
1 in vivo + clinical     117         
Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH 23 in vitro 1618 119   620         
13 in vivo + clinical 921   222        123   124
Foeniculum vulgare (L.) MILL. 1 in vitro     125         
3 in vivo + clinical     126    327      
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 6 in vitro 428    229         
4 in vivo + clinical 330    131    132      
Linum usita-tissimum L. 1 in vitro     133         
3 in vivo + clinical   134   235    136      
Malva sylvestris L. 1 in vitro     137         
3 in vivo + clinical 138    239    140      
Matricaria recutita L. 5 in vitro   141   442         
5 in vivo + clinical 143   144 245    246      
Mentha x piperita L. 0 in vitro             
1 in vivo + clinical        147      
Origanum vulgare L. 1 in vitro     148         
6 in vivo + clinical 249       350     151  
Pimpinella anisum L. 1 in vitro     152         
2 in vivo + clinical 153 154           
Plantago lanceolata L. 3 in vitro     355         
0 in vivo + clinical             
Potentilla erecta (L.) RAEUSCH. 1 in vitro     156         
0 in vivo + clinical             
Rubus fruticosus L. 4 in vitro     457         
0 in vivo + clinical             
Rumex ssp. L. 1 in vitro     158         
3 in vivo + clinical     259    260      
Salix ssp. L. 4 in vitro     461         
1 in vivo + clinical     162         
Salvia officinalis L. 0 in vitro             
7 in vivo + clinical 163 164 165 466    267      
Sambucus nigra L. 2 in vitro 168    169         
1 in vivo + clinical    170          
Thymus vulgaris L. 5 in vitro     571         
4 in vivo + clinical   172 173     274      
Tussilago farfara L. 1 in vitro     175         
0 in vivo + clinical             
Urtica dioica L. 4 In vitro 276    277         
4 in vivo + clinical 378    179    180      
Vaccinium myrtillus L. 1 In vitro     181         
2 in vivo + clinical 182    283         
Sum of plant species for each effect in vitro 6 3 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
in vivo + clinical 9 4 6 13 0 1 12 0 1 1 1 1
Sum of assessments in vitro 29 3 0 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
in vivo + clinical 24 4 7 20 0 1 20 0 1 1 1 1
  1. aAssessment = conclusion of a reference on a hypothesized effect; breference = trial x plant species x indication; + = reference proves evidently the hypothesized effect; ? = reference shows uncertain hypothesized effect; o = reference does not prove evidently the hypothesized effect
  2. 1[328, 329] 2[330] 3[331] 4[331] 5[332] 6[333] 7[334] 8[78, 80] 9[65, 67, 68, 79, 335] 10[79] 11[133, 336, 337] 12[336, 338348] 13[134, 349] 14[131, 350] 15[351] 16[352, 353] 17[354] 18[99, 100, 355368] 19[369] 20[102, 370374] 21[93, 97, 98, 375380] 22[381, 382] 23[383] 24[384] 25[385] 26[386] 27[386388] 28[144, 334, 389, 390] 29[391, 392] 30[138, 380, 393] 31[394] 32[394] 33[395] 34[396] 35[397, 398] 36[397] 37[399] 38[400] 39[401, 402] 40[401] 41[403] 42[404407] 43[408] 44[409] 45[410, 411] 46[410, 412] 47[413] 48[414] 49[415, 416] 50[417419] 51[420] 52[421] 53[422] 54[423] 55[392, 424, 425] 56[426] 57[427430] 58[431] 59[432, 433] 60[432, 434] 61[426, 435437] 62[438] 63[439] 64[440] 65[441] 66[442445] 67[442, 443] 68[446] 69[430] 70[447] 71[436, 448450] 72[451] 73[451] 74[417, 452] 75[453] 76[454, 455] 77[456, 457] 78[138, 458, 459] 79[460] 80[460] 81[344] 82[461] 83[461, 462]