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Table 6 Details of number of dogs, 95 % CI affected cases, AED doses and serum levels, treatment period and adverse effects

From: Antiepileptic drugs’ tolerability and safety – a systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse effects in dogs

Studies AED No of dogs treated Prevalence 95 % CI affected cases Doses of AEDs Serum levels of AEDs Treatment period Body system affected and adverse effects Most common adverse effects Adverse effect type
Schwartz-Porsche et al. 1982 Prim 30 NA NA range, 13–100 mg/kg PO SID range, 6–37 μg/ml range 6–96 m Neurological (sedation, hind limb weakness), GI (PP), PU, PD, ClinPath (ALP, SGPT) sedation, PU, PD I
Schwartz-Porsche et al. 1985 Prim 20 NA NA range, 17–107 mg/kg PO SID range, 0.5–58 μg/ml mean, 14; range, 6.0–35 m Neurological (sedation, hind limb weakness, ataxia), GI (PP), PD, ClinPath (ALT, ALP, GLDH) sedation, PU, increased ALT, ALP and GLDH I
Farnbach et al. 1984 Prim 23 4.3 % −4.0 %–12.6 % range, 15.2–82 mg/kg PO SID range, 4.8–70.7 μg/ml NA Neurological (sedation, ataxia) sedation, ataxia I
Cunningham et al. 1983 Prim 15 NA NA 10.6–39.4 mg/kg PO TID mean, 2.4 μg/ml 9 m Neurological (disorientation, ataxia, hyperactivity, pacing), GI (PP), PU, PD PU, PD, PP, drowsiness, ataxia I
Poffenbarger et al. 1985 Prim (monotherapy or as an adjunct to PHB) 3 NA NA Varied NA 8–84 m GI (chronic hepatopathy/toxicity-hepatic chirosis) chronic hepatopathy/toxicity I
Bunch et al. 1987 Prim 1 NA NA 13 mg/kg PO BID NA 4 d Neurological (hyperactivity) NA I
Bunch et al. 1984 Prim 22 93 % 82.3 %–103.6 % Prim: 33+/−19 mg/kg PO SID
Other AEDs: NA
NA range, 6–120 m GI (chronic hepatopathy/toxicity), ClinPath (increased ALP, ALT, AST, γ-GT, bile acids) chronic hepatoxicity, increased ALP, ALT, AST, bile acids I
Bunch et al. 1982 Prim 2 NA NA Case 1: 750 mg in total PO BID
Case 2: 250 mg in total PO BID
NA 24 m GI (chronic hepatopathy/toxicity) chronic hepatoxicity I
EPAR (US field trial) Prim 110 NA NA NA NA NA Neurological (ataxia, hyperactivity, anxiety, disorientation), ClinPath (increased enzymes-unclear which) tachypnoea, PD ataxia, PD, increased liver enzymes I
Raw and Gaskell 1985 Prim 52 35 % 22.0 %–48.0 % NA NA 48 m Neurological (ataxia), GI (PP), PD ataxia, PD, PP  
Meyer and Noonan 1981 Prim 6 100 % 100 % 30–40 mg/kg PO BID NA 3 m ClinPath (increased ALP, ALT) increased ALT, ALP I
Sturtevant et al. 1977 Prim 2 100 % 100 % 17.6 mg/kg POTID NA 1 m ClinPath (anemia, increased ALP) increased ALP I & II
Jacobs et al. 1998 Prim 1 NA NA 25 mg/kg PO BID NA 2 m Blood dyscrasias (neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia), ClinPath (decreased albumin, increased ALP) NA II
Henricks 1987 Prim 1 NA NA 62 mg in total PO BID NA 2 m Dermatitis NA II
Balazs et al. 1978 Prim 4 0 % 0 % 40–80 mg/kg PO SID NA 1.75 m No adverse effects NA NA
Bunch et al. 1985 Prim 6 0 % 0 % NA NA NA No adverse effects NA NA
  1. Abbreviations: AED(s) anti-epileptic drug(s), BID bis in die (twice daily), Chloraz Chlorazepate, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, CL confidence level, Gaba Gabapentin, IE idiopathic epilepsy, LEV Levetiracetam, m month(s), NA Not Available, PHB phenobarbital, PD polydipsia, PU polyuria, PP polyphagia, PBr potassium bromide, Prim primidone, PO per os, SID semel in die (once daily), TID ter in die (three times daily), TPM Topiramate, w week(s), y year(s)