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Table 4 Details of number of dogs, 95 % CI affected cases, AED doses and serum levels, treatment period and adverse effects

From: Antiepileptic drugs’ tolerability and safety – a systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse effects in dogs

Studies AED No of Dogs Prevalence 95 % CI affected case Doses of AEDs Serum levels of AEDs Treatment period Body system affected and adverse effects Most common adverse effects Adverse effect type
Volk et al. 2008 LEV as an adjunct to PHB and/or PBr 14 7.14 % −6.3 %−20.6 % LEV: 10 mg/kg for 2 m, 20 mg/kg for further 2 m, 10–20 mg/kg until 6 m and then 10–20 mg/kg long-term PO TID
PHB and PBr: NA but were within normal reference values
PHB: 35.5+/−6.3 μg/ml, PBr:1.7+/−0.4 mg/ml, (prior LEV initiation and 2 m after initiation). ≥2–6 m Neurological (sedation) sedation I
Volk et al. 2008 (case series) LEV as an adjunct to PHB and/or PBr and/or gaba and/or TPM 8 25 % −2.6 %–18.6 % LEV: 30–32 mg/kg PO TID TID
PHB and PBr: NA but were within normal reference values
NA Approximately 2–3 m Neurological (sedation) sedation I
Muñana et al. 2012 LEV as an adjunct to PHB and/or PBr and/or gaba and/or zonisamide 28 57 % 38.7 %–75.3 % LEV: median, 20.6; range, 17–23.1 PO TID
PHB: median, 7.2; range, 3.8–17.2 mg/kg PO SID.
PBr: median, 34.0; range, 13.6–84.2 mg/kg PO SID
LEV: range, <2-50.8 μg/mL.
PHB: mean, 28.13; range, 15.77–36.40 μg/mL
PBr: mean, 186.20; range, 71.18–390 mg/dL
9 m (during the 5th m no AED was administered) Neurological (ataxia, hyperactivity), GI: (anorexia, vomiting) ataxia I
Steinberg 2004 LEV as an adjunct to PHB and PBr 15 0 % 0 % LEV: range, 7.1–23.8 mg/kg PO TID
PB and PBr: NA
PHB: mean, 32.1+/−14.4 μg/ml.
LEV: NA
PBr: 2.2+/−0.7 mg/dl
median, 38; range, 13.8–95.5 m No adverse effects attributed to LEV NA I
Packer et al. 2015 LEV as an adjunct to PHB and PBr 52 46 % 32.5 %–59.6 % Maintenance group: mean, 19.5; range, 9–26 mg/kg PO TID.
Pulse group: Initial dose at 60 mg/kg followed by 20 mg/kg PO TID
NA Maintenance group: mean, 1.4; range, 0.3–7.5 y
Pulse group: mean, 0.8; range, 0.3–3.4 y
Neurological (ataxia, sedation, aggression, hyperactivity), GI (PP, vomiting, diarrhoea), PD
(Three times more often in the pulse group)
ataxia, sedation I
Fredso et al. 2015 LEV 6 84 % 53.8 %–113.2 % median, 31; mean, 30.4; range, 27.6–51.5 PO TID median, 114; mean, 93; range, 18–137 μmol/L 2–12 m Neurological (ataxia, sedation, hyperactivity, disobedience, attention seeking), GI (PP, anorexia, vomiting), PU, PD PP I
Moore et al. 2010 LEV 6 16.6 % –13.2 %–46.4 % At day one, a single dose was administered: mean, 21.7; range, 20.8–22.7 mg/kg PO. Then: range, 20.8–22.7 mg/kg PO TID for 6 d 289.31+/−51.68 μg/mL 0.25 m GI (vomiting)
(only one episode at the first d)
NA I
  1. Abbreviaions: AED(s) anti-epileptic drug(s), BID bis in die (twice daily), Chloraz Chlorazepate, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, CL confidence level, Gaba Gabapentin, IE idiopathic epilepsy, LEV Levetiracetam, m month(s), NA Not Available, PHB phenobarbital, PD polydipsia, PU polyuria, PP polyphagia, PBr potassium bromide, Prim primidone, PO per os, SID semel in die (once daily), TID ter in die (three times daily), TPM Topiramate, w week(s), y year(s)