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Table 1 Anamnesis of the horses included in the study, contrast administration protocol used and final (CT) diagnosis

From: Intra-arterial versus intra venous contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the equine head

Case Breed Age Sex Reason to perform the scan IV/IA Diagnosis Enhancement
1 WB 17 G Intermittent unilateral epistaxis IA 2 mL/s No significant abnormalities x
2 WB 8 M Headshaking IA 2 mL/s Widened infraorbital canal, remaining tooth fragments x
3 WB 4 G Unilateral nasal discharge IA 2 mL/s Ectopic tooth, apical infection x
4 WB 1 M Facial swelling, difficulty breathing IA 2 mL/s Sinus cyst Mild enhancement of the capsule
5 WB 4 G Facial swelling, unilateral nasal discharge IA 2 mL/s Inflammatory/infectious disease with intra-cranial extension Irregular enhancement of the trigeminal nerve and soft tissue enhancements surrounding the osteolysis
6 Arabian 11 S Soft tissue mass soft palate IA 2 mL/s Squamous cell carcinoma Heterogeneous enhancement of the mass
7 WB 14 G Swelling behind left mandible IA 2 mL/s Soft tissue mineralisation’s, bilateral TMJ disease, x
8 WB 18 S Bilateral sinusitis IA 2 mL/s Progressive ethmoidal hematoma Very mild enhancement
9 WB 8 M Infectious process IA 2 mL/s Fractured right external acoustic meatus x
10 WB 9 G Opacity in the frontal sinus IA 2 mL/s Sinus cyst x
11 WB 6 G Unilateral nasal discharge IA 2 mL/s Apical infection, tooth fracture and secondary sinusitis x
12 WB 1 G Facial swelling, unilateral nasal discharge IA 2 mL/s ameloblastoma x
13 WB 10 M Epistaxis after surgery IV 241 mgI/kg Subcutaneous emphysema x
14 WB 19 M Study IV 305 mgI/kg No significant abnormalities x
15 Trotter 22 G Unilateral nasal discharge with decreased air passage IV 281 mgI/kg Progressive ethmoidal hematoma with secondary sinusitis Adjacent mucosal enhancement
16 WB 8 M Unilateral nasal discharge IV 216 mgI/kg Apical infection with abscess Mild enhancement of the capsule
17 WB 16 M Intermitted unilateral epistaxis IV 311 mgI/kg Progressive ethmoidal hematoma Very mild enhancement
18 WB 9 G Difficulty breathing IV 252 mgI/kg Sinus cyst Mild enhancement of the capsule
19 Pony 4 S Facial swelling IV 373 mgI/kg Alveolitis x
20 WB 25 G Intermitted unilateral epistaxis IV 201 mgI/kg Progressive ethmoidal hematoma Rim enhancement
21 WB 10 M Unilateral nasal discharge IV 219 mgI/kg Alveolitis with secondary sinusitis x
22 WB 16 M Epilepsy IV 257 mgI/kg No significant abnormalities x
23 WB 9 M Epilepsy IV 260 mgI/kg No significant abnormalities x
24 WB 22 G Maxillary swelling IV 279 mgI/kg Inflammation of the right masseter musc. With abcess Mild homogeneous enhancement of the musc and rim enhancement surrounding an abcess