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Table 4 Seasonal changes in serum metabolites for subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) presented as 95 % confidence interval

From: Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical variables in free-ranging subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

Variablea Unit λb 2.5 - 97.5 intervalc Sex d Seasone n Range p-valuef
β-HBA mmol/L 0.2 0.0–1.2 F + M W 15 0.5–1.4 <0.0001
Sp 27 0.0–0.8
Su 18 0.0–0.2
Bile acids μmol/L −1 4–52 F + M W 15 4–9 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 6–36
Bilirubin (total) μmol/L 0.2 0–4 F + M W + Sp 42 0–4 0.0131
Su 18 0–2
Cholesterol mmol/L 1 4.3–12.6 F + M W 15 8.7–12.8 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 4.0–11.4
Creatinine μmol/L 0.2 72–303 F + M W 15 166–322 <0.0001
Sp 27 105–196
Su 18 52–152
FFA mmol/L 0.4 0.1–1.1 F + M W + Sp 42 0.2–1.2 <0.0001
Su 18 0.1–0.8
Glucose mmol/L 0.8 2.6–10.6 F + M W + Sp 42 4.0–10.2 0.0003
Su 18 1.9–9.2
Triglycerides mmol/L 0.4 1.8–7.2 F + M W 15 3.4–7.8 <0.0001
Sp 27 2.1–5.3
Su 18 1.7–4.1
Urea mmol/L 0 0.5–26.3 F + M W 15 1.0–12.1 <0.0001
Sp 27 0.3–9.5
Su 18 0.6–32.4g
Uric acid μmol/L −0.6 48–270 F + M W 15 42–146 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 68–215
  1. aβ-HBA = β-hydroxybutyrate; FFA = free fatty acids
  2. bλ = the transformation value from the Box-Cox transformation
  3. c2.5 and 97.5 percentiles on untransformed data
  4. dF = female; M = male
  5. eW = winter (February-March); Sp = spring (April-May); Su = summer (June)
  6. f p-values are given for significantly different seasons groups
  7. gNon-estimable 95 % confidence interval, the range is given as lowest-highest measured value