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Table 4 The effect of TC (42 °C for 6 h; posthatch day 28) during 4 time terminals (at the beginning and after 1, 3 and 5 h of TC) on selected enzymes activities of broiler chicks subjected to different TM protocols at ED 12–18 (n = 5)

From: Biochemical and molecular investigation of thermal manipulation protocols during broiler embryogenesis and subsequent thermal challenge

Parameters Groups Treatments
Control TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4
ALT TN 5.5 ± 1.7 aw 6.5 ± 1.9 aw 5.5 ± 0.7 aw 7.0 ± 1.4 aw 6.5 ± 0.7 aw
  TC1 6.0 ± 2.4 aw 8.5 ± 2.1 aw 8.0 ± 1.9 aw 9.5 ± 1.5 aw 8.5 ± 1.5 aw
  TC3 7.5 ± 0.4 aw 9.0 ± 1.7 aw 7.5 ± 0.7 aw 8.5 ± 0.7 aw 8.5 ± 1.6 aw
  TC5 5.5 ± 2.1 aw 6.0 ± 1.6 aw 8.5 ± 1.5 aw 9.0 ± 1.6 aw 9.5 ± 1.7 aw
AST TN 80.5 ± 0.7 aw 75.8 ± 4.1 aw 76.5 ± 3.5 aw 83.5 ± 2.3 aw 83.5 ± 6.4 aw
  TC1 80.5 ± 6.4 aw 76.5 ± 7.6 aw 80.0 ± 1.4 aw 83.5 ± 2.0 aw 81.0 ± 8.5 aw
  TC3 85.0 ± 2.8 aw 70.0 ± 1.2 aw 77.0 ± 1.4 aw 72.0 ± 2.9 aw 76.0 ± 4.2 aw
  TC5 87.5 ± 7.7 aw 80.5 ± 4.9 aw 77.5 ± 6.4 aw 70.0 ± 3.2 aw 80.5 ± 3.5 aw
GGT TN 10.5 ± 3.5 aw 11.5 ± 0.7 aw 11.5 ± 0.7 aw 12.5 ± 0.7 aw 11.0 ± 1.4 aw
  TC1 11.5 ± 0.7 aw 11.5 ± 0.7 aw 11.8 ± 0.6 aw 10.5 ± 2.1 aw 12.5 ± 0.7 aw
  TC3 11.5 ± 1.0 aw 12.0 ± 0.7 aw 12.5 ± 0.7 aw 12.0 ± 1.4 aw 12.5 ± 0.7 dw
  TC5 11.5 ± 0.9 aw 9.5 ± 2.1 aw 12.5 ± 0.5 aw 10.0 ± 1.2 aw 11.0 ± 0 .9 aw
CK TN 1276 ± 79aw 1277 ± 100 aw 1394 ± 98 aw 1239 ± 99 aw 1293 ± 141 aw
  TC1 1202 ± 80 aw 1314 ± 108 aw 1182 ± 150 aw 1135 ± 161 aw 1205 ± 138 aw
  TC3 1310 ± 100 aw 1410 ± 100 aw 1253 ± 138 aw 1239 ± 163 aw 1285 ± 124 aw
  TC5 1239 ± 95 aw 1307 ± 150 aw 1257 ± 96 aw 1205 ± 144 aw 1265 ± 90 aw
  1. Control 37.8 °C, TM 1 Thermal manipulation at 38.5 °C for 18 h, TM 2 Thermal manipulation at 39 °C for 18 h, TM 3 Thermal manipulation at 39.5 °C for 18 h, TM 4 Thermal manipulation at 40 °C for 18 h, TC Thermal challenged
  2. a–d within rows, means ± SD with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  3. w-z Between naïve and TC chicks within a parameter, means ± SD with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)