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Table 2 The effect of TC (42 °C for 6 h; posthatch day 28) during 4 time terminals (at the beginning and after 1, 3 and 5 h of TC) on plasma free and bound thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of broiler chicks subjected to different TM protocols at ED 12–18 (n = 5)

From: Biochemical and molecular investigation of thermal manipulation protocols during broiler embryogenesis and subsequent thermal challenge

Parameters Groups Treatments
Control TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4
Free T3 TN 3.63 ± 0.16 aw 2.66 ± 0.29 bw 2.70 ± 0.11 bw 2.65 ± 0.13 bw 2.60 ± 0.16 bw
TC1 2.43 ± 0.28 ax 1.33 ± 0.16 bx 1.32 ± 0.29 bx 1.79 ± 0.25 bx 1.65 ± 0.28 bx
TC3 2.47 ± 0.20 ax 1.47 ± 0.14 bx 1.40 ± 0.31 bx 1.79 ± 0.15 bx 1.67 ± 0.16 bx
TC5 2.81 ± 0.30 ax 1.41 ± 0.14 bx 1.42 ± 0.27 bx 1.72 ± 0.12 bx 1.81 ± 0.23 bx
Bound T3 TN 4.05 ± 0.01 aw 3.90 ± 0.29 aw 3.75 ± 0.35 aw 3.68 ± 0.54 aw 3.34 ± 0.37 aw
TC1 3.57 ± 0.51 aw 3.68 ± 0.78 aw 3.57 ± 0.23 aw 3.79 ± 0.24 aw 3.54 ± 0.28 aw
TC3 3.50 ± 0.53 aw 3.62 ± 0.78 aw 3.96 ± 0.03 aw 3.96 ± 0.59 aw 3.65 ± 0.60 aw
TC5 3.94 ± 0.40 aw 3.89 ± 0.89 aw 3.76 ± 0.07 aw 3.79 ± 0.33 aw 3.67 ± 0.91 aw
Free T4 TN 0.21 ± 0.12 aw 0.29 ± 0.14 aw 0.34 ± 0.12 aw 0.30 ± 0.13 aw 0.38 ± 0.18 aw
TC1 0.69 ± 0.10 ax 0.69 ± 0.16 ax 0.40 ± 0.13 ax 0.50 ± 0.12 ax 0.51 ± 0.13 ax
TC3 0.52 ± 0.13 ax 0.58 ± 0.14 ax 0.59 ± 0.21 ax 0.58 ± 0.17 ax 0.56 ± 0.11 ax
TC5 0.54 ± 0.12 ax 0.51 ± 0.13 ax 0.56 ± 0.11 ax 0.56 ± 0.11 ax 0.55 ± 0.11 ax
Bound T4 TN 2.56 ± 0.13 aw 2.19 ± 0.45 aw 2.87 ± 0.61 aw 2.65 ± 0.42 aw 2.82 ± 0.60 aw
TC1 2.56 ± 0.46 aw 2.88 ± 0.17 aw 2.67 ± 0.32 aw 2.86 ± 0.55 aw 2.62 ± 0.20 aw
TC3 2.02 ± 0.57 aw 2.71 ± 0.47 aw 2.71 ± 0.23 aw 2.33 ± 0.51 aw 2.78 ± 0.25 aw
TC5 2.98 ± 0.54 aw 2.30 ± 0.34 aw 2.94 ± 0.16 aw 2.95 ± 0.01 aw 2.45 ± 0.41 aw
  1. Control 37.8 °C, TM 1 Thermal manipulation at 38.5 °C for 18 h, TM 2 Thermal manipulation at 39 °C for 18 h, TM 3 Thermal manipulation at 39.5 °C for 18 h, TM 4 Thermal manipulation at 40 °C for 18 h, TC Thermal challenged
  2. a–b within rows, means ± SD with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  3. w-x Between naïve and TC chicks within a parameter, means ± SD with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)
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