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Table 5 Landmarks used to maximise consistency of quantitative measurement of limb swelling

From: A preliminary study of the effect of closed incision management with negative pressure wound therapy over high-risk incisions

Joint Anatomical landmarks
Elbow Circumferential measurement at level of lateral epicondyle and medial epicondyle with elbow in full extension
Carpus Circumferential measurement at level of styloid process of radius and styloid process of ulna with carpus in full extension (unless arthrodesis performed)
Metacarpo-phalangeal Circumferential measurement at the level of the head of metacarpal five laterally and head of metacarpal two medially with joint held in full extension
Proximal interphalangeal Measurement across dorsum of digits extending from head of proximal phalanx five laterally to head of proximal phalanx two medially with joint held in full extension
Distal interphalangeal Measurement across dorsum of digits extending from head of middle phalanx five laterally to head of middle phalanx two medially with joint held in full extension
Stifle Circumferential measurement at level equidistant between the tibial tuberosity and distal extent of the patella with the stifle held in full extension
Tarso-crural Circumferential measurement at level of lateral malleolus of fibula and medial malleolus of tibia with joint held in full extension
Metatarso-phalangeal Circumferential measurement at the level of the head of metatarsal five laterally and head of metatarsal two medially with joint held in full extension
Proximal interphalangeal Measurement across dorsum of digits extending from head of proximal phalanx five laterally to head of proximal phalanx two medially with joint held in full extension
Distal interphalangeal Measurement across dorsum of digits extending from head of middle phalanx five laterally to head of middle phalanx two medially with joint held in full extension