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Table 1 Demographic details of 20 OTP-controlled RCTs in veterinary homeopathy

From: Veterinary homeopathy: Systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised trials controlled by other than placebo

i: Individualised/Treatment
Condition Species Ref. First author Year Design Control Homeopathic medicine Dilution* Study setting Funding Free from vested interest
Mastitis, metritis and agalactia Pigs A12 Schütte 1988 Active Antibiotic Individualised D3-D12 University veterinary ambulance; 21 swine herds in Germany (Berlin area) Remedies were gift of the manufacturer No
ii: Non-individualised/Treatment
Condition Species Ref. First author Year Design Control Homeopathic medicine Dilution Study setting Funding Free from vested interest
Diarrhoea (neonatal) Cattle A42 Lohr 2012 Active Oral electrolytes 3 complex preparations: Nux vomica; Veratrum; Engystol Not stated Six farms in Germany Directly funded study (Heel Pharmacy) No
Diarrhoea (neonatal) Pigs A14 Coelho 2009 Active Antibiotic Phosphorus/E. coli 30C Swine farm, Brazil The company, Farmácia Sensitiva, 'supplied' the medicines No
Ectoparasite infestation Cattle A41 Catto 2013 Active Anthelmintic 2 complex preparations of various components (mainly nosodes) All but one components potentised to 12C and higher (30C, 200C) Cattle farm, Brazil None stated Unclear
Ectoparasite infestation Cattle A19 Silva 2008 Active Chemical dip 'Biotherapic' of Boophilus microplus and 14 other organisms 12C Government research institution, Brazil None declared. The homeopathic laboratories, Flora & Fauna Ltd., supplied the medicine No
Foot-and-mouth disease Cattle A40 Lotfollahzadeh 2012 Active Anti-inflamatory and antibiotic Tarentula cubensis D5 Cattle farms, Iran Richter Pharma donated the homeopathic medicine No
Gastrointestinal nematodes Sheep A21 Zacharias 2008 Active Anthelmintic 3 remedies: Ferrum phosphoricum, Arsenicum album, Calcarea carbonica Not stated Government research institution, Brazil None stated Unclear
Lameness Horses A15 Faulstich 2006 Active Hyaluronic acid Complex of 14 homeopathically prepared ingredients D3 - D8 Two horse clinics in Germany (Berlin area, Munich area) Study performed by a contract research organisation No
Mastitis Cattle A16 Klocke 2010 Active Teat-sealer 8 remedies: Mercurius solubilis, Lachesis mutus, Sulfur, Calcium carbonicum, Calcium phosphoricum, Pulsatilla pratensis, Sepia, Silica D6 Thirteen organic dairy herds, Switzerland EC grant; Weleda 'provided the remedies' No
Mastitis Cattle A20 Varshney 2005 Active Antibiotic Complex of 8 remedies: Healwell VT-6 (Sintex International Limited, Kalol, India), consisting of Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica, Silica, Belladona, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium, Ipecacuanha "in equal amount" 200C: Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica. 30c: Silica, Belladona, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium, Ipecacuanha Dairy farm, India Sintex International Ltd 'supplied the homeopathic formulation for clinical trial' No
Mastitis, metritis and agalactia Pigs A39 Braun 2011 Active Antibiotic 2 complex preparations. Lachesis compositum + Traumeel Not stated Three piglet-rearing farms in Germany Directly funded study (Heel Pharmacy) No
Pseudopregnancy Dogs A13 Beceriklisoy 2008 Active Naloxone Thuja occidentalis/Urtica urens D30 University animal clinic, Turkey None stated Unclear
Salmonellosis Birds A18 Sandoval 1998 Active Antibiotic Baptisia tinctoria 30C Poultry farm, Mexico None stated Unclear
Gastrointestinal nematodes Sheep A17 Rocha 2006 (A + B) vs. B Anthelmintic only Fator Vermes Not stated University establishment, Brazil None stated Unclear
iii: Non-individualised/Prophylaxis
Condition Species Ref. First author Year Design Control Homeopathic medicine Dilution Study setting Funding Free from vested interest
Ectoparasite infestation Cattle A34 Signoretti 2008 (A + B) vs. B Protein supplement only Factor C & MC ® : 16 remedies All 12C Government research institution, Brazil None stated Unclear
Diarrhoea (neonatal) Pigs A36 Soto 2008 (A + B) vs. B Sucrose saline only Complex of 4 remedies: Echinacea angustifolia, Avena sativa, Ignatia amara, and Calcarea carbonica 6C Commercial swine herd, Brazil None stated Unclear
Handling stress Cattle A31 Reis 2006 (A + B) vs. B Mineral salt only Matricaria chamomilla® 12C (plus non potentised sugar and Bixa orellana [grams]) Cattle farm, Brazil "This research was supported by the Homeopathic Laboratory Arenales Flora & Fauna Ltd." No
Immune response to rabies vaccination Cattle A32 Reis 2008 (A + B) vs. B Mineral salt only Matricaria chamomilla® 12C Cattle farm, Brazil The homeopathic laboratories, Flora & Fauna Ltd., are thanked by the author non-specifically Unclear
Infertility Cattle A35 Sommer 1972 Untreated Untreated Complex of 5 remedies D3-D5 Two cattle farms, University of Hohenheim (Germany) None stated Unclear
Infertility Cattle A38 Williamson 1991 Untreated Untreated Sepia 200C Dairy herd, Scotland British Cattle Veterinary Association. The pharmacy, Ainsworth's, are thanked by the authors non-specifically Unclear
  1. *Note on homeopathic dilutions: The number refers to the number of successive serial dilutions to which the starting material has been subjected. The letter refers to the scale on which the dilution has been carried out: the letter D denotes the decimal method of dilution (that is, one part of liquid is added to nine parts of purified water, ethanol, glycerol or lactose); the letter C indicates the centesimal method (one part added to 99 parts of diluent). In homeopathic dilutions above 12C/D24 (10−24 molar) – beyond Avogadro’s constant, 6.02 x 1023 mol−1 – there are, in theory, no material traces of the original substance; such dilutions are known as ‘ultra-molecular’