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Table 3 Summary of primary outcome endpoints which are applicable to clinical studies and highlight different aspects of outcome; modified from [65, 66, 73]

From: International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal: outcome of therapeutic interventions in canine and feline epilepsy

Outcome parameters
Efficacy
 Conventional endpoints fixed treatment period
 Seizure free rate (percentage seizure freedom)a no baseline data required
  Short-term 24 weeks
  Long-term 48 weeks – 3 years
 Median seizure frequency reduction baseline data required
 Responder rate (percentage responders) baseline data required
(≥50 % reduction median seizure frequency often not clinically relevant)
 Individual endpoints
 Time to first seizure based on interseizure interval
 Time to second seizure  
 Time to n-th seizure  
 Pre-defined patient-centered outcome criteria individually assessed
Tolerability
 Adverse events to be assessed, also assess number and reasons for drop-outs
Quality of life
 Patient’s QOL score validated scores needed
 Owner’s QOL score control groups important
Retention rate applicable to long-term studies
  1. a Need to specify reliability of assessment: (A) freedom of generalized seizures only or (B) freedom of generalized and focal seizures