Skip to main content

Table 4 Depicting variable study design

From: International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs

Breed Study N Study designs Case selection Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Investigations for confirmation of idiopathic epilepsy
Australian Shepherd Weissl et al. 2012 [9] 50 Cohort, controls Questionaire &phone interview ≥2 seizures ≥ 4 weeks apart, age at onset ≤ 5 years History of skull trauma PE, NE, laboratory with bile acid stimulation test
MRI/CSF (47 %)
Urinary organic/amino acids (20 %)
Post mortem (4 %)
Belgian Shepherd Berendt et al. 2008 [23] 49 Population survey (breed) Questionnnaire (validated) &phone interview ≥2 seizures n.s. n.s.
  Seppala et al. 2012 [34] 94 Cohort, controls Questionnaire ≥2 seizures n.s. Detailed examination (18 %) [35]
PE, NE, laboratory
MRI/CSF
Descriptive: EEG (18 %)b
  Oberbauer et al. 2003 [35] 164 Cohort (family-based) Owner-reported generalized seizures & questionnaire ≥2 seizures n.s. n.s.
  Oberbauer et al. 2010 [36] 74 Cohort, controls Owner and veterinarian reported generalized seizures ≥2 seizures n.s. n.s.
  Gullov et al. 2012 [37] 51 Cohort, controls (family-based) Questionnaire & phone interview ≥2 seizures n.s. PE, NE, laboratory with thyroid profile, ECG
  Berendt et al. 2009 [41] 66 Cohort (family-based) Questionnaire & phone interview ≥2 seizures History suggesting intracranial disease and progressive neurological signs. PE, NE, laboratory with thyroid profile, ECG
  Famula et al. 1997 [38] 23 Population survey (breed) Questionnaire 1 seizure n.s. n.s.
142 ≥2 seizures
  Famula & Oberbauer 2000 [39] 21 Population survey (breed) Questionnaire 1 seizure n.s. n.s.
157 ≥2 seizures
Bernese Mountain Dog Kathmann et al. 1999 [45] 50 Cohort Questionnaire History of epileptic seizures n.s. PE, NE, laboratory with bile acid stimulation test, CSF
Border Collie Hülsmeyer et al. 2010 [8] 49 Cohort Questionnaire & phone interview ≥2 seizures, at least 4 weeks apart Presence of any initial precipitating event (eg, head trauma), an identified brain lesion, or observational data consisting of less than 10 h/day. PE, NE, laboratory
Border Terrier Kearsley-Fleet et al. 2013 [17] n.s. Population survey (vet practice) Electronic patient records ≥2 seizures for ≥ 1 year, or Medical records documented disease that could have caused epilepsy including brain imaging abnormalities PE, laboratory
≥4 prescript- ions of AEDs
  Kloene et al. 2008 [56] 47 Population survey (breed) Questionnaire n.s. n.s. PE, NE, laboratory with bile acid stimulation testa (10 %)
CT/CSF (10 %)
Urinary organic/amino acids (47 %)
Cavalier King Charles Rusbridge&Knowler 2004 [58] 40 Cohort, controls (family investigation) Owner-reported seizures Diagnosis by veterinarian (generalized seizures, AED) Clinical signs of CM n.s.
  Driver et al. 2013 [59] 29 Cohort, controls Medical record search CKCS with CM History of epileptic seizures MR lesions other than CM or ventriculomegaly Laboratory with bile acid stimulation test, CSF, EEGb
Abnormal laboratory data
Collie Munana et al. 2012 [64] 29 Cohort Questionnaire Age of onset > 6 m/< 5 y, > 6 m prescription of AEDs   Laboratory
Dalmatian Licht et al. 2002 [65] 11 Cohort Questionnaire & phone interview ≥1 seizure Evidence for structural epilepsy, seizures were not seen from the beginning PE, NE, laboratory, bile acid stimulation test, tests for suspected toxin exposure
English Springer Spaniel Patterson et al. 2005 [74] 45 Cohort Questionnaire & phone interview ≥2 seizures, ≥ 4 weeks apart Evidence for head trauma or toxin exposure NE, laboratory age of onset < 6 m />5 y: MRI or CT WNL or > 2 y without interictal abnormalities
  Kearsley-Fleet et al. 2013 [17] n.s. Population survey (vet practice) Electronic patient records ≥2 seizures for ≥ 1 year, or Medical records documented disease that could have caused epilepsy including brain imaging abnormalities PE, CBC, biochemical profile
≥4 prescriptions of AEDs
Finnish Spitz Jeserevic et al. 2007 [80] 15 Cohort, controls   ≥2 focal seizures   PE, NE, laboratory
MRI/CSF (73 %), EEGb
  Viitmaa et al. 2006 [81] 11 Cohort, controls   ≥2 focal seizures Evidence for structural epilepsy PE, NE, laboratory, MRI/CSF, EEGb
  Viitmaa et al. 2013 [82] 111 Population survey (breed) Questionnaire & phone interview ≥2 seizure episodes Interictal neurologic abnormalities, onset < 1 y, only 1 seizure episode PE, NE, laboratory (27.8 %)
  Viitmaa et al. 2014 [83] 11 Cohort   ≥2 focal seizures   PE, NE, laboratory
Golden Retriever Srenk&Jaggy 1996 [85] 5 Cohort, controls Questionnaire, medical records review History of epileptic seizures, normal diagnostic tests n.s. EEGb
  Srenk et al. 1994 [84] 36 Cohort Questionnaire, medical records review History of epileptic seizures, normal diagnostic tests n.s. PE, NE repeatedly, laboratory with bile acids or ammonia, CSF, EEG
  Lengweiler&Jaggy 1999 [86] 25 Cohort Questionnaire ≥2 seizures n.s. PE, NE repeatedly, laboratory with bile acids or ammonia, CSF
Hungarian (Magyar) Vizsla Patterson et al. 2003 [87] 29 Population survey (breed) Questionnaire ≥2 seizures, ≥ 1 month apart Evidence of toxin exposure or head trauma NE, laboratory
If < 6 m/ > 5 < y: CT /MRI/CSF
Irish Wolfhound Casal et al. 2006 [24] 146 Population survey (families) Questionnaire ≥2 seizures Other medical problems PE, NE, laboratory with bile acids or ammonia or both post mortem exam (10 %)
Italian Spinone DeRisio et al. 2015 [93] 63 Population survey (breed) Questionnaire ≥2 seizures, ≥ 24 h apart n.s. PE, NE, laboratory
onset >6 m / <6y
Labrador Retriever Heynold et al. 1997 [94] 54 Cohort (medical records) Questionnaire ≥2 seizures video documentation (28 %)   PE, NE, laboratory with bile acids or ammonia, CSF
  Jaggy et al. 1998 [95] 55 Cohort, controls Questionnaire ≥2 seizures Other medical problems PE, NE, laboratory with bile acids or ammonia, CSF at presentation and at 6 month follow-up
Lagotto Romagnolo Jokinen et al. 2007 [105] 25 Cohort, case–control Breeder-reported seizures families Seizure episodes n.s. PE, NE, laboratory, MRI/CSF
EEG/EMG/BAERb
Post mortem (n = 1)
Petit Basset Griffon Gullov et al. 2011 [25] 42 Population survey (breed) Questionnaire (validated) & phone interview% ≥2 seizures, ≥ 24 h apart n.s. Laboratory, thyroid function, cardiac exam (45 %) bile acid stimulation test (21 %)
MRI (7 %)
Shetland Sheepdog Morita et al. 2002 [109] 11 Cohort (family) Prospective investigation Repeated seizures n.s. Laboratory
EEG on repeated occasionsb
CSF (64 %)
Post mortem (64 %)
Standard Poodle Licht et al. 2007 [113] 30 Population survey (family) Short questionnaire, & phone interview, 6 months follow-up ≥1 seizure History of illness or head trauma that could account for seizures ≥1 year unremarkable follow-up
Age of onset <6 m/>7.5y
  Licht et al. 2002 [65] 41 Cohort Owner-reported seizures ≥1 seizure Evidence for structural epilepsy, seizures were not seen from the beginning PE, NE, laboratory, bile acid stimulation test, tests for suspected toxin exposure
Questionnaire & phone interview
  1. asome dogs with elevated bile acids; b EEG was used for descriptive purposes and not as a diagnostic test for IE
  2. n.s. not specified, PE physical examination, NE neurological examination, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, CSF cerebrospinal fluid analysis, EEG electroencephalography, ECG electrocardiogram