Skip to main content

Table 4 Multivariable multilevel* logistic regression model of factors associated with the presence of an active lesion on 3 sites on elephants working in tourism camps in Thailand

From: Risk factors for saddle-related skin lesions on elephants used in the tourism industry in Thailand

Variable Odds ratio Lower 95 % CI Upper 95 % CI P value
Body Area     
  Girth Ref    
  Back 2.92 1.55 5.50 0.001
  Tail 0.46 0.23 0.92 0.028
Contact Material     
  Bark Ref    
  Carpet 0.38 0.09 1.65 0.195
  Blanket 0.63 0.13 2.96 0.558
  Rice Sack 5.09 1.36 19.06 0.016
Saddle Weight     
  Light (<10 kg) Ref    
  Heavy (>10 kg) 2.69 0.82 8.79 0.101
Break**     
  No Ref    
  Yes 11.12 2.25 54.97 0.003
Age     
  1.03 1.002 1.06 0.036
Working Hours/Day     
  Working Hours/Day 23.74 5.17 109.03 <0.0001
  Working Hours/Day Squared 0.78 0.69 0.89 <0.0001
  1. Variance = 0.48 (95 % CI 0.08 – 2.73)
  2. *Model includes a random intercept for camp
  3. **Break is defined as a period of time when either the girth strap was loosened, or the whole saddle was completely removed