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Table 3 Univariable multilevel* logistic regression models of factors associated with the presence of an active lesion on elephants from tourism camps in Thailand

From: Risk factors for saddle-related skin lesions on elephants used in the tourism industry in Thailand

Variable Odds ratio Lower 95 % CI Upper 95 % CI P value
Body Area (n = 194, m = 18)     
  Girth Ref    
  Back 2.56 1.61 4.07 <0.0001
  Tail 0.44 0.26 0.74 0.002
Contact Material (n = 163, m = 18)     
  Bark Ref    
  Carpet 0.52 0.15 1.79 0.301
  Blanket 0.78 0.30 2.02 0.612
  Rice Sack 2.10 0.74 5.96 0.164
Saddle Weight (n = 191, m = 18)     
  Light (<10 kg) Ref    
  Heavy (>10 kg) 0.65 0.21 2.03 0.458
Break** (n = 194 , m = 18)     
  No Ref    
  Yes 0.54 0.18 1.67 0.286
Age (n = 133, m = 17)     
  1.03 1.002 1.05 0.034
Working Hours/Day (n = 194, m = 18)     
  Working Hours/Day 3.79 1.41 10.18 0.008
  Working Hours/Day Squared 0.90 0.83 0.97 0.009
  1. Ref = Referent Category
  2. n = number of elephants with data collected for the indicated variable (/194)
  3. m = number of camps with data collected for the indicated variable (/18)
  4. *Models include a random intercept for camp
  5. **Break is defined as a period of time when either the girth strap was loosened, or the whole saddle was completely removed