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Table 2 Summary of independent variables: working hours/day, break, saddle weight, contact material, age, and the number of elephants, by tourism camp in Thailand

From: Risk factors for saddle-related skin lesions on elephants used in the tourism industry in Thailand

Camp #Elephants Scheduled working hours/day Break* Saddle weight (kg)** Contact material^ Average age in years [range] (# of elephants with known age)
1 13 10 Yes Light Shredded bark, carpet, blanket 28.1 [18 – 36] (13)
2 8 8 No Heavy Shredded bark, carpet, blanket 32.1 [17 – 47] (7)
3 27 8 No Light Shredded bark, carpet, blanket, rice sack 31.9 [28 – 35] (8)
4 5 6, 8, 10 No Heavy Shredded bark, blanket 47.0 [36 – 60] (5)
5 10 9 Yes Light Shredded bark, bark 44.1 [31 – 51] (9)
6 4 4 No Light Shredded bark 29.0 [12 – 40] (4)
7 3 5 No Heavy Rice sack 39.3 [37 – 41] (3)
8 4 7 Yes Light Shredded bark 33.0 [33] (1)
9 26 7 No Heavy Shredded bark, blanket ND
10 9 7 No Light Shredded bark, blanket, rice sack 40.9 [31 – 52] (7)
11 4 4 No Light Rice sack 24.0 [14 – 40] (4)
12 5 7 No Light Rice sack 28.6 [15 – 45] (5)
13 8 6 No Light Rice sack 25.5 [17 – 35] (4)
14 18 4 Yes Heavy Carpet 33.8 [9 – 52] (18)
15 32 10 Yes Heavy Blanket 25.3 [7 – 45] (26)
16 3 2 Yes Heavy Shredded bark 39.0 [21 – 50] (3)
17 6 2 Yes Heavy Shredded bark 32.5 [15 – 59] (6)
18 9 2***, 7 1 yes , 8 no Heavy Shredded bark 33.1 [6 – 43] (9)
  1. ND = No data
  2. *Break is defined as a period of time when either the entire saddle was completely removed, or the girth strap was loosened
  3. **Saddle weight is dichotomized into light (<10 kg) and heavy (>10 kg)
  4. ***The individual elephant that works 2 hours/day gets the break
  5. ^Each elephant had only one contact material, but the same material was not necessarily used for all animals within a camp