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Table 4 The ruminal fluid composition, blood metabolites and hormone level in the dairy cows fed the low-concentrate (LC) diet and high-concentrate (HC) diet

From: Lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet

  Treatment   
VFA profile 1 LC HC SEM 2 p-value 3
Total VFA(mmol/L) 92.91 107.64a 3.66 <0.05
Molar proportion, mmol/mol     
Acetate 454.51 440.55 3.10 0.47
Propionate 247.68 281.83b 2.41 <0.01
Isobutyrate 25.19 24.68 0.38 0.83
Butyrate 210.11 195.99 1.77 0.17
Isovalerate 36.31 34.52 0.67 0.67
Valerate 21.25 19.93 0.24 0.38
Caproate 4.95 2.49b 0.17 <0.01
Acetate:Propionate 1.84 1.57a 0.02 <0.05
Propionate:Butyrate 1.18 1.44b 0.05 <0.01
Lactic acid 0.96 1.55b 0.20 <0.01
Plasma biochemical parameter 4     
TG (mmol/L) 0.28 0.21a 0.05 <0.05
NEFA (mmol/L) 1.16 0.48ab 0.07 <0.001
TCH (mmol/L) 2.21 1.69b 0.31 <0.01
GLU (mg/dL) 45.23 56.02b 4.54 <0.01
Hormone level 4     
Insulin (μIU/mL) 16.95 21.57a 1.01 <0.05
Glucagon (pg/mL) 191.23 161.02 18.28 0.28
Insulin:Glucacon 0.10 0.16c 0.01 0.07
  1. 1The volatile fatty acid and lactic acid concentrations and the mean proportion across the sampling times during the 18th week.
  2. 2SEM = Standard error of the mean between the two treatments.
  3. 3The data were compared using a paired t-test.
  4. 4The mean metabolite concentration in the jugular plasma across the sampling times. TG, triglyceride; NEFA: non-esterified fatty acid; TCH, total cholesterol; GLU, glucose;
  5. aindicates p < 0.05; bindicates p < 0.01; abindicates <0.001.