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Table 1 Signalment of dogs included and relevant history

From: Assessment into the usage of levetiracetam in a canine epilepsy clinic

Variable Maintenance ( n= 29) Pulse ( n= 23) Total ( n= 52)
Sex    
  Male 8 (27.4%) 5 (22%) 13 (25%)
  Male neutered 9 (31%) 10 (43.3%) 19 (36.5%)
  Female n/a 1 (4.3%) 1 (2%)
  Female neutered 12 (41.4%) 7 (30.4%) 19 (36.5%)
Weight at start of LEV (kg) 28.3 (7.5-77.9; IQR 23.3-33.6) 22.8 (3.4-55; IQR 18.6-44.2) 26.3 (3.4-77.9; IQR 19.2-36.2)
Age at first seizure (years) 1.9 (0.2-7.2; IQR 1.4-4) 2.6 (0.8-7.6; IQR 1.5-4.8) 2.6 (0.2-7.6; IQR 1.5-4.1)
Age at follow up/death (years) 6 (1–12; IQR 4.8-8)a 6 (2–12; IQR 4.1-7.9)b 6.1 (1–12; IQR 4.6-8)
Length of epilepsy (years) 3 (0.1-8.6; IQR 1.5-5.5) 2.3 (0.3-6.9; IQR 1.6-3.2) 3 (0.1-8.6; IQR 1.5-4.9)
Total number of seizures prior AED 2 (0.3-60; IQR 1–3.5) 3 (0.4-20; IQR 2–5) 2.5 (0.3-60; IQR 1.1-5)
Total number of seizures prior LEV 5.3 (0.7-60; IQR 2.5-12) 4 (0.7-15; IQR 2–9) 4.8 (0.7-40; IQR 2–9.8)
Total number of seizures on LEV 2 (0–40; IQR 0.8-5.7) 1 (0–12; IQR 0–4) 1.3 (0–40; IQR 0.5-4.8)
Total number of seizure days prior AED 1 (0.3-7; IQR 1–2.5) 2 (0.3-6; IQR 1.3-3) 1.6 (0.3-7; IQR 1–3)
Total number of seizure days prior LEV 2 (0.7-12; IQR 1.2-4) 1.5 (0.5-5.3; IQR 1–2) 2 (0.5-10; IQR 1–3)
Total number of seizures days on LEV 2 (0–12; IQR 0.6-3) 1 (0–4.7; IQR 0–2) 1 (0–10; IQR 0.4-2.8)
Treatment prior LEV    
  No AED 3 (10%) 2 (9%) 5 (10%)
  1 AED 8 (28%) 3 (13%) 11 (21%)
  2 AED 18 (62%) 17 (74%) 35 (67%)
  3 AED n/a 1 (4%) 1 (2%)
Time on PB prior LEV (days) 336 (2–1724; IQR 101–713)c 386 (3–2023; IQR 218–1044) d 343(2–2023; IQR 120–782)
Time on KBr prior LEV (days) 1047 (190–2443; IQR 713–1594)e 1073 (330–2999; IQR 660–2449)f 1101 (190–2999; IQR 689–1978)
Age at start of LEV (years) 3.8 (1–8.2; IQR 2.4-6) 4.8 (1.5-10.7; IQR 2.6-7.7) 4.2 (1–10.7; IQR 2.5-6.6)
Length of LEV treatment (years) 1.4 (0.3-7.5; IQR 0.8-3.6) 0.8 (0.3-3.4; IQR 0.5-2) 1.1 (0.3-7.5; IQR 0.6-2.3)
  1. aDeath at follow up (n = 15); bDeath at follow up (n = 8); Not treated with PB when on LEV(c n = 3 or d n = 3); Not treated with KBr when on LEV (e n = 11 or f n = 4); IQR, Interquartile range; LEV, levetiracetam; AED, Antiepileptic drugs; PB, phenobarbitone; Kbr, potassium bromide; n/a = not applicable.