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Table 1 Degree of lameness of horses (n = 6) submitted to the experimental synovitis model and treated with 0.25 mg/kg + 0.25 mg/kg/h methadone (Me), 0.15 mg/kg + 0.1 mg/kg/h morphine (Mo), 25 μg/kg + 25 μg/kg/h butorphanol (B), and 1.5 mg/kg + 1 mg/kg/h tramadol (T)

From: Physiological and analgesic effects of continuous-rate infusion of morphine, butorphanol, tramadol or methadone in horses with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced carpal synovitis

   Time (hours)
      Continuous rate infusion        
   0 1.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 24
Lameness score Me 0 (0–0) 1.5 (0.5-2)* 4 (3.5-4) 3.5 (3–4) 2 (2–2.5)a 1 (1–1.5)*a 1.5 (0.5-2)*a 1.5 (1–2)* 1 (1–1.5)* 1 (1–1.5)* 1.5 (1–2)* 1 (1–1.5)* 0 (0–0)*
Mo 0 (0–0) 3 (2–3) 4 (4–4) 4 (3.5-4) 3 (3–4)ab 2 (2–3)*a 2.5 (2–3)*a 2 (2–3)* 2 (2–3)* 2 (2–2.7)* 2 (1.2-2.7)* 2 (1.2-2.7)* 0 (0–1)*
B 0 (0–0) 2 (2–3)* 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4)ab 4 (4–4)b 3 (2.5-3)a 2 (1.5-3)* 2 (1–3)* 2 (1–3)* 1.5 (0–2.2)* 1.5 (0–2)* 0 (0–0)*
T 0 (0–0) 3 (2.7-3) 4 (3–4) 4 (3.7-4) 4 (3–4)b 4 (3–4)b 3.5 (3–4)b -- -- -- -- -- 0 (0–0)*
Trial 0 (0–0) 3 (3–3) 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 3.5 (3–4) 4 (4–4) 3 (3–3) 3 (3–3) 1.5 (1–2)
  1. The pilot study was conducted with 2 horses that received no opioid treatment (Trial). Values reflect the median and interquartile range.
  2. Continuous rate infusion was performed between 3 and 6 hours (grey).
  3. *Difference relative to 3-hour baseline.
  4. Within a time point, values with different letters differ significantly.