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Table 4 Details of numbers of dogs, pre- and post- treatment seizure frequency, period of treatment, doses of AED(s), seizure frequency reduction/response after the initiation of treatment and efficacy statements for each study

From: Treatment in canine epilepsy – a systematic review

References Tipold et al.[14] EMEA pseudo-placebo[13] Löscher et al.[26]Rieck et al.[27] Löscher et al.[26]Rieck et al.[27]
AED evaluated   Imepitoin   
2 nd AED - - - PB (11 dogs) or Primidone (6 dogs)
3 rd AED - - - -
4 th AED - - - -
No of dogs After exclusion: 64 First part: 127 12 17
  Before exclusion: 93 Second part (follow up): 100 (from the 127)   
Period of treatment (months) 5 6 mean, 7.7 ± 0.7 mean, 5.6 ± 0.7
Dose of AED(s) (mg/kg) 10-30 PO BID High dose group: 30 PO BID 5 PO BID for 1 week and then increased to 10–30 PO BID Imepitoin: mean, 7.7 ± 0.7;
   Low dose: 1 PO BID [during the follow up all the 100 (53 from the previous high dose group and 47 from the low-dose) dogs were treated with the high dose only]   PB: 6–23 PO SID; Primidone: 25–53 PO SID
Pre-treatment SF (seizures/month) 2.3 (recorded over a period of 1.5 m) High dose group: mean, 2.9 median, 1.6 (recorded over a period of approx. 9 m) median, 1.9 (recorded over a period of mean 1.6 years)
   Low dose group: mean, 2   
Post-treatment SF (seizures/month) 1.1 High dose group: mean, 2.2 median, 0.72 median, 2
   Low dose group: mean, 1.8   
   (For the follow up study: NA)   
No of dogs that were failures - Unclear 3/12 (25%) 6/17 (35%)
No of dogs with >0% - <50% reduction in SF - Unclear 4/12 (33%) 4/17 (24%)
No of dogs with ≥50% - <100% reduction in SF After exclusion: 18/64 (28%) Unclear 4/12 (33%) 6/17 (35%)
  Before exclusion: 22/93 (24%)    
No of dogs with 100% reduction in SF After exclusion: 30/64 (47%) First Part: High dose group: 44/127 (35%); Low dose: 6/127 (5%) 1/12 (8%) 1/17 (6%)
  Before exclusion:31/93 (33%) Follow-up: High-high dose group: 19/53 (35%) and Low-high dose group: 24/47 (50%)   
No of dogs with >30% reduction in SF - As above 9/12 (75%) 11/17 (65%)
95% CI successfully treated cases After exclusion: 64% - 86% Follow-up: 25-46% and 36-63% (but only for the seizure free dogs) 13% - 69% 18% - 64%
  Before exclusion: 47% - 67%    
Overall evidence for/against recommending the use of an AED Good evidence for recommending the use of imepitoin as a monotherapy AED.
Insufficient evidence for recommending the use of imepitoin as an adjunct AED.
  1. AED(s), anti-epileptic drug(s); BID, bis in die (twice daily); Chloraz, Chlorazepate; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; CL, confidence level; Diaz, Diazepam; Gaba, Gabapentin; IE, idiopathic epilepsy; LEV, Levetiracetam; m, month(s); NA, Not Available; PB, phenobarbital; PBr, potassium bromide; PO, per os; SF, seizure frequency; SID, semel in die (once daily); TID, ter in die (three times daily); TPM, Topiramate; w, week(s).