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Table 1 Mean values with standard deviation

From: Effects of isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine and a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and fentanyl on physiological variables continuously measured by telemetry in Wistar rats

Parameter Treatment Baseline Induction time Non-surgical tolerance Surgical tolerance Wake-up period Recovery
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
SAP (mmHg) ISO 118 ± 8.2 133 ± 11.2* 120 ± 21.5 111 ± 12.9 126 ± 10.8* 119 ± 6.2
KX 117 ± 7.0 144 ± 10.5* 129 ± 19.1* 111 ± 14.3 99 ± 8.1* 113 ± 10.3
MMF 120 ± 9.1 167 ± 14.1* 170 ± 12.7* 177 ± 15.1* 113 ± 10.0 117 ± 5.2
DAP (mmHg) ISO 87 ± 5.8 97 ± 9.5* 85 ± 19.2 78 ± 12.1* 89 ± 9.1 90 ± 4.6*
KX 92 ± 9.1 113 ± 8.9* 99 ± 17.3 85 ± 14.2* 76 ± 9.6* 86 ± 5.9
MMF 89 ± 5.9 124 ± 8.9* 121 ± 9.3* 118 ± 7.6* 86 ± 7.9 91 ± 4.5
MAP (mmHg) ISO 97 ± 6.5 109 ± 10.0* 96 ± 19.9 89 ± 12.3* 101 ± 9.6 100 ± 5.0*
KX 100 ± 8.0 123 ± 8.9* 109 ± 17.7* 93 ± 13.9* 84 ± 8.5* 95 ± 6.5
MMF 99 ± 6.9 138 ± 10.6* 137 ± 10.1* 138 ± 9.9* 95 ± 8.5 100 ± 4.6
PP (mmHg) ISO 31 ± 3.8 36 ± 3.5* 35 ± 3.4* 33 ± 2.9* 37 ± 3.7* 30 ± 2.7
KX 25 ± 5.9 31 ± 6.7* 30 ± 5.9* 26 ± 6.8 23 ± 7.0* 27 ± 8.7
MMF 31 ± 3.8 43 ± 5.7* 50 ± 5.9* 59 ± 8.5* 27 ± 3.1* 26 ± 2.4*
HR (bpm) ISO 293 ± 18.1 381 ± 35.1* 369 ± 22.0* 404 ± 24.5* 445 ± 20.0* 300 ± 14.1*
KX 281 ± 22.7 371 ± 33.9* 271 ± 24.0 255 ± 25.7* 289 ± 31.3 316 ± 17.1*
MMF 293 ± 32.9 303 ± 30.2 229 ± 20.9* 209 ± 24.0* 255 ± 28.6* 286 ± 22.5
BT (°C) ISO 37.34 ± 0.17 37.38 ± 0.23 37.33 ± 0.26 36.56 ± 0.55* 36.39 ± 0.71* 37.34 ± 0.16
KX 37.34 ± 0.26 37.27 ± 0.25 37.22 ± 0.22 36.78 ± 0.41* 36.95 ± 0.53 37.55 ± 0.45
MMF 37.49 ± 0.41 37.43 ± 0.40 37.30 ± 0.51 36.90 ± 0.86* 36.54 ± 0.93* 37.25 ± 0.43
  1. No. of animals per treatment: ISO n = 10, KX n = 10, MMF n = 9.
  2. *statistically significant difference (p value ≤0.05) based on the ANOVA for the comparison of anaesthetic intervals versus baseline.