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Table 5 Mineral and protein reference intervals for brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) presented as 95% confidence interval 1

From: Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

Variablea Unit n λb 2.5 - 97.5 intervald Sexc Age groupe Reference interval p-valuef
Calcium mmol/L 88 2 1.8-2.7 B YSA 1.8-2.6  
Chloride mmol/L 88 2 88-104 B YSA 92-105  
Iron μmol/L 88 0.2 13-68 B YS 14-50 <0.0001A
A 19-75
Magnesium mmol/L 88 1 0.70-1.21 B Y 0.70-1.27 0.0167A
SA 0.65-1.15
Inorganic Phosphorous mmol/L 88 1.4 0.6-2.6 B Y 1.1-2.7 0.0002A
SA 0.7-2.3
Potassium mmol/L 88 −0.2 3.2-5.3 B YSA 3.3-5.1  
Sodium mmol/L 88 2 128-141 F YSA 132-141 0.0135S
  M YSA 123-145
Albumin g/L 86 1.4 27.2-49.6 B Y 24.5-40.6 <0.0001A
SA 34.2-49.1
α1-globulin g/L 86 0.4 2.6-7.9 B Y 3.0-10.6 <0.0001A
SA 1.7-8.3
α2-globulin g/L 86 −0.4 2.9-10.2 B Y 3.1-13.4 0.0004A
SA 2.7-9.3
β-globulin g/L 86 0 3.0-9.2 F Y 3.2-6.0 <0.0001A, 0.0096S
SA 3.7-9.1
  M Y 2.2-8.6
SA 5.1-10.0
γ-globulins g/L 86 0.4 1.6-7.9 B Y 1.4-5.0 <0.0001A
S 2.2-5.8
A 3.2-8.1
A:G   86 0 1.13-2.89 B Y 1.03-2.70 <0.0001A
SA 1.38-3.07
Total protein g/L 88 2 48-72 B Y 39-64 <0.0001A
S 50-68
A 53-74
  1. 1: Presented stratified by age group, sex or presented overall, depending on if a difference between groups was detected. a: A:G=albumin:globulin ratio. b: λ=the transformation value from the Box-Cox transformation. c: 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles on untransformed data. d: B=both female and male; F=female; M=male. e: Y=yearling; S=subadult; A=adult. f: p-values are given for significantly different groups: A=p-value for age; S=p-value for sex.