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Table 4 Metabolite and cortisol reference intervals for brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) presented as 95% confidence interval 1

From: Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

Variablea Unit n λb 2.5 - 97.5 intervald Sexc Age groupe Reference interval p-valuef
β-HBA mmol/L 88 −0.2 0.0-1.9 B YSA 0.0-1.1  
Bile acids μmol/L 88 −0.6 5-65 F YA 8-59 0.0073A, 0.0059S
S 5-60
  M YA 6-46
S 7-13
Bilirubin (total) μmol/L 88 0.2 0-6 B YSA 0-5  
Cholesterol mmol/L 88 1.2 4.5-12.2 B Y 5.9-13.2 <0.0001A
SA 4.7-10.4
Creatinine μmol/L 88 1 66-218 B Y 57-160 <0.0001A
S 101-190
A 107-235
Free fatty acids mmol/L 88 0.2 0.1-1.4 B YSA 0.1-1.3  
Glucose mmol/L 88 0.4 3.3-11.5 B YSA 3.3-10.9  
Triglycerides mmol/L 88 0.8 1.7-5.4 F Y 1.5-5.4 0.0220A, 0.0122S
SA 1.7-4.4
  M Y 3.2-8.6
SA 1.9-7.9
Urea mmol/L 88 −0.4 0.5-11.9 B Y 0.4-4.0 0.0255A
SA 0.4-NE*
Uric acid μmol/L 88 −0.8 68-209 B Y 73-111 <0.0001A
SA 70-222
Cortisol nmol/L 88 0.4 30-564 B YSA 45-565  
  1. 1: Presented stratified by age group, sex or presented overall, depending on if a difference between groups was detected. a: β-HBA=β-hydroxybutyrate b: λ=the transformation value from the Box-Cox transformation. c: 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles on untransformed data. d: B=both female and male; F=female; M=male. e: Y=yearling; S=subadult; A=adult. f: p-values are given for significantly different groups: A=p-value for age and S=p-value for sex *NE: Non-estimable because estimates were above the range of the transformation.