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Table 3 Enzyme reference intervals for brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) presented as 95% confidence interval 1

From: Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

Variablea Unit n λb 2.5 - 97.5 intervald Sexc Age groupe Reference interval p-valuef
AST U/L 88 −1.2 45-215 F YA 56-168 0.0034AxS
  S 46-114
  M YSA 46-114
ALT U/L 88 −1 11-47 B YSA 12-41  
AP U/L 88 0.2 15-166 B Y 65-185 <0.0001A
S 31-101
A 10-92
GGT U/L 88 0.2 3-91 B YS 3-51 0.0126A
A 5-82
GD U/L 88 −0.8 2-18 B YS 3-8 0.0003A
A 3-16
CK U/L 88 −0.4 53-690 B Y 81-631 <0.0001A
SA 44-419
Amylase U/L 88 0 22-192 B YSA 24-143  
Lipase U/L 88 −0.4 14-247 F YA 16-NE* 0.0063A, <0.0001S
S 10-NE*
  M YA 11-159
S 9-58
LD U/L 88 0.2 434-1066 F Y 587-1060 0.0184AxS
SA 421-875
M YS 587-1060
A 421-875
  1. 1: Presented stratified by age group, sex or presented overall, depending on if a difference between groups was detected. a: AST=aspartate aminotransferase; ALT=alanine transaminase; AP=alkaline phosphatase; GGT=γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; GD=glutamate dehydrogenase; CK=creatinine kinase; LD=lactate dehydrogenase; A:G=albumin:globulin ratio. b: λ=the transformation value from the Box-Cox transformation. c: 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles on untransformed data. d: B=both female and male; F=female; M=male. e: Y=yearling; S=subadult; A=adult. f : p-values are given for significantly different groups: A=p-value for age, S=p-value for sex and AxS=p-value for age-sex interaction. *NE: Non-estimable because estimates were above the range of the transformation.