Skip to main content

Table 1 Association of Beclin-1 expression pattern and clinicopathologic variables in 70 cases of malignant CMTs

From: Expression of autophagy-related protein beclin-1 in malignant canine mammary tumors

   Beclin-1 cytoplasmic expression p value Beclin-1 nuclear expression p value
Variable No. of cases Low High   Low High  
Agea        
11 years 36 15 (38.5%) 21 (70.0%) 0.009* 10 (37.0%) 26 (61.9%) 0.044*
 > 11 years 33 24 (61.5%) 9 (30.0%)   17 (63.0%) 16 (38.1%)  
Location of affected gland        
 Cranial gland 24 14 (35.0%) 10 (33.3%) 0.953 9 (32.1%) 15 (35.7%) 0.890
 Caudal gland 42 24 (60.0%) 18 (60.0%)   17 (60.7%) 25 (59.5%)  
 Both 4 2 (5.0%) 2 (6.7%)   2 (7.1%) 2 (4.8%)  
Tumor size        
3 cm 27 13 (32.5%) 14 (46.7%) 0.228 9 (32.1%) 18 (42.9%) 0.367
 > 3 cm 43 27 (67.5%) 16 (53.3%)   19 (67.9%) 24 (57.1%)  
Histologic classification        
 Simple carcinoma 54 30 (75.0%) 24 (80.0%) 0.877 23 (82.1%) 31 (73.8%) 0.640
 Complex carcinoma 11 7 (17.5%) 4 (13.3%)   3 (10.7%) 8 (19.0%)  
 Sarcoma 5 3 (7.5%) 2 (6.7%)   2 (7.1%) 3 (7.1%)  
Tubular formation        
 > 10% of the tumor 45 19 (47.5%) 26 (86.7%) 0.001* 14 (50.0%) 31 (73.8%) 0.042*
10% of the tumor 25 21 (52.5%) 4 (13.3%)   14 (60.0%) 11 (26.2%)  
Nuclear pleomorphism        
 Mild to moderate 46 17 (42.5%) 19 (63.3%) 0.084 12 (42.9%) 24 (57.1%) 0.241
 Marked 34 23 (57.5%) 11 (36.7%)   16 (57.1%) 18 (42.9%)  
Mitotic count        
10/10 HPFs 52 25 (62.5%) 27 (90.0%) 0.009* 18 (64.3%) 34 (81.0%) 0.118
 >10/10 HPFs 18 15 (37.5%) 3 (10%)   10 (35.7%) 8 (19.0%)  
Histologic grade        
 Grades 1 and 2 56 27 (67.5%) 29 (96.7%) 0.003* 18 (64.3%) 38 (90.5%) 0.007*
 Grade 3 14 13 (32.5%) 1 (3.3%)   10 (35.7%) 4 (9.5%)  
Lymphovascular invasion        
 Absent 51 26 (65.0%) 25 (83.3%) 0.088 19 (67.9%) 32 (76.2%) 0.442
 Present 19 14 (35.0%) 5 (16.7%)   9 (32.1%) 10 (23.8%)  
Necrosis        
 Limited/no necrosis 41 17 (42.5%) 24 (80%) 0.002* 12 (42.9%) 29 (69.0%) 0.029*
 Extensive necrosis 29 23 (57.5%) 6 (20%)   16 (57.1%) 13 (31.0%)  
Estrogen receptor        
 Negative 25 16 (40%) 9 (30%) 0.388 9 (32.1%) 16 (38.1%) 0.611
 Positive 45 24 (60%) 21 (70%)   19 (67.9%) 26 (61.9%)  
Her2 overexpression        
 Negative 51 29 (72.5%) 22 (73.3%) 0.938 24 (85.7%) 27 (64.3%) 0.048*
 Positive 19 11 (27.5%) 8 (26.7%)   4 (14.3%) 15 (35.7%)  
  1. HPF, High power field.
  2. aThe age of one case is unknown.
  3. *p < 0.05.