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Table 1 Type (oral/motor), name and description of stereotypic behaviours observed

From: Plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations in stereotypic and non-stereotypic horses: do stereotypic horses cope better with poor environmental conditions?

Type Name Description
Oral Cribbing The horse grasps a fixed object with its incisors, pulls back and draws air into its oesophagus while emitting a characteristic pharyngeal grunt.
Lip play The horse moves its upper lip up and down without making contact with an object, or the horse smacks its lips together.
Tongue play The horse sticks out its tongue and twists it in the air.
Lip or teeth rubbing The horse rubs its upper lip or its upper teeth repetitively against the box wall.
Repetitive licking/biting The horse licks or bites the box walls, box grids or external part of the feeding trough.
Motor Head shaking and nodding The horse bobs its head repeatedly up and down or tosses its head in recurrent and sudden bouts.
Weaving The horse sways laterally, moving its head, neck, forequarters and sometimes hindquarters.
Box walking The horse paces a fixed route around the stall.
Door kicking The horse kicks the door of the box repeatedly with its forelegs.
  1. Adapted from [3],[5],[24],[26]].