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Table 3 Final ordinal logistic regression model of 191 horse owners and managers perception of being not vulnerable to a future equine influenza outbreak, based on a study conducted in New South Wales, Australia in 2009

From: Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

Parameters b SE(b) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P-valuea
Constant 1 −1.12 0.72 - - -
Constant 2 0.88 0.72 - - -
Received infection control information from a sporting/breeding association/societyb - - - - <0.001
  No 0 - 1 - -
  Yes −1.11 0.31 0.33 (0.18, 0.61) -
Received infection control information from a non-veterinarian horse professionalc - - - - 0.04
  No 0 - 1 - -
  Yes −0.65 0.33 0.52 (0.27, 0.99) -
Involved in horse racing - - - - 0.006
  No 0 - 1 - -
  Yes 1.54 0.55 4.67 (1.63, 13.93) -
Geographic cluster - - - - 0.024
  NW Sydney 0 - 1 - -
  Central Coast 1.01 0.56 2.74 (0.96, 7.94)  
  Hunter Valley 1.09 0.45 2.97 (1.22, 7.38)  
  Northern NSW 1.67 0.51 5.30 (1.96, 14.78)  
  SW Sydney 0.78 0.48 2.19 (0.84, 5.76)  
Suspected equine influenza transmission route during the 2007 outbreak - - - - 0.035
  Not infected 0 - 1 - -
  Direct or indirect transmission −0.57 0.40 0.56 (0.26, 1.24) -
  Wind transmission −0.98 0.38 0.37 (0.18, 0.78) -
Perceived preparedness for a future equine influenza outbreak - - - - 0.023
  Unprepared 0 - 1 - -
  Prepared 0.99 0.51 2.68 (1.00, 7.53) -
  Highly prepared 1.47 0.54 4.34 (1.52, 13.11) -
Age - - - - 0.323
  <35 years 0 - 1 - -
  35-54 years −0.68 0.47 0.51 (0.19, 1.29) -
  ≥55 years −0.44 0.59 0.65 (0.20, 2.10) -
Gender - - - - 0.864
  Female 0 - 1 - -
  Male −0.06 0.34 0.94 (0.48, 1.83) -
  1. Log likelihood = 64.81; d.f. = 14; P < 0.001; Goodness-of-fit deviance χ2-test statistic P-value = 0.52; Score test = 0.32.
  2. aP-values based on Wald χ2-test of significance; b Sporting organisations include those relevant to horse showing, pony-club, rodeo-style, polo, equestrian and/or racing; c including farriers, dentists, chiropractors, trainers and coaches.