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Table 2 Contingency tables and univariable ordinal logistic regression results for the association of explanatory variables with the perception of being not vulnerable to a future equine influenza outbreak ( p< 0.20) based on responses of 191 horse owners and managers interviewed in 2009 in NSW, Australia

From: Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

   Perception of vulnerability   
   Not vulnerable Vulnerable Very vulnerable Odds-ratiosa(95% CI)  
   Freq Freq Freq  
Variables and categories   (Row%) (Row%) (Row%) P
Regional cluster <0.001
  Northern NSW 23 (50%) 18 (39%) 5 (11%) 8.32 (3.78, 18.89)  
  South-West Sydney 9 (30%) 13 (43%) 8 (27%) 3.52 (1.50, 8.44)  
  Hunter Valley 13 (30%) 18 (42%) 12 (28%) 3.44 (1.58, 7.63)  
  Central Coast 4 (20%) 12 (60%) 4 (20%) 3.25 (1.27, 8.45)  
  North-West Sydney 11 (20%) 10 (18%) 34 (62%) 1  
Equine influenza outbreak control zone <0.001
  Restricted zone 45 (34%) 60 (46%) 26 (20%) 3.66 (2.01, 6.79)  
  Special restricted zone 15 (24%) 11 (17%) 37 (59%) 1  
Suspected equine influenza transmission route during the 2007 outbreak <0.001
  Wind 16 (21%) 24 (31%) 37 (48%) 0.27 (0.14, 0.50)  
  Direct/indirect 14 (30%) 18 (38%) 15 (32%) 0.51 (0.25, 1.01)  
  Not infected 30 (43%) 29 (41%) 11 (16%) 1  
Premises infected during the 2007 outbreak <0.001
  Yes 30 (24%) 42 (34%) 52 (42%) 0.35 (0.20, 0.60)  
  No 30 (43%) 29 (41%) 11 (16%) 1  
Premise enterprise type 0.001
  Farm 18 (51%) 14 (40%) 3 (9%) 4.02 (1.93, 8.59)  
  Stud 8 (47%) 5 (29%) 4 (24%) 2.69 (1.01, 7.45)  
  Agistmentb 6 (38%) 4 (25%) 6 (38%) 1.48 (0.53, 4.18)  
  Training 7 (20%) 14 (40%) 14 (40%) 0.93 (0.45, 1.90)  
  Small acreage home 21 (23%) 34 (37%) 36 (40%) 1  
Involved in equestrian eventsc 0.003
  Yes 13 (21%) 19 (31%) 29 (38%) 0.42 (0.23, 0.74)  
  No 47 (35%) 52 (39%) 34 (26%) 1  
Involved in rodeo-style horse eventsd 0.006
  Yes 14 (45%) 14 (45%) 3 (10%) 2.68 (1.33, 5.51)  
  No 46 (28%) 57 (35%) 60 (37%) 1  
Involved in horse racing 0.193
  Yes 8 (42%) 7 (37%) 4 (21%) 1.78 (0.75, 4.37)  
  No 52 (30%) 64 (36%) 59 (34%) 1  
Received infection control information from sporting/breeding association/societye 0.003
  Yes 23 (21%) 44 (41%) 41 (38%) 0.45 (0.26, 0.76)  
  No 37 (43%) 27 (31%) 22 (26%) 1  
Received infection control information from non-veterinarian horse professionalsf 0.004
  Yes 11 (18%) 24 (39%) 27 (44%) 0.44 (0.25, 0.76)  
  No 49 (37%) 47 (36%) 36 (27%) 1  
Received infection control information from the internet 0.034
  Yes 43 (28%) 55 (36%) 55 (36%) 0.54 (0.26, 0.95)  
  No 17 (41%) 16 (39%) 8 (20%) 1  
Received infection control information from other horse owners 0.119
  Yes 40 (29%) 48 (35%) 50 (36%) 0.64 (0.36, 1.12)  
  No 20 (36%) 23 (41%) 13 (23%) 1  
Perceived stringency of own outbreak biosecurity measures 0.039
  Very stringent/stringent 34 (26%) 49 (37%) 49 (37%) 0.51 (0.28, 0.92)  
  Average/normal 21 (41%) 18 (35%) 12 (24%) 1  
  Less/not at all stringent 5 (46%) 4 (36%) 2 (18%) 1.25 (0.37, 4.36)  
Perceived level of preparedness for a future equine influenza outbreak 0.042
  Unprepared 4 (17%) 7 (29%) 13 (54%) 1  
  Prepared 35 (32%) 45 (42%) 28 (26%) 2.92 (1.26, 7.03)  
  Highly prepared 21 (36%) 18 (30%) 20 (34%) 2.63 (1.06, 6.73)  
Perceived level of general interest in infection control 0.066
  Very interested 28 (27%) 38 (36%) 39 (37%) 0.48 (0.19, 1.18)  
  Interested 20 (30%) 27 (41%) 19 (29%) 0.36 (0.15, 0.86)  
  Not interested 12 (52%) 6 (26%) 5 (22%) 1  
Age (years) 0.045
  >54 12 (40%) 11 (37%) 7 (23%) 0.75 (0.26, 2.11)  
  35-54 37 (26%) 54 (38%) 51 (36%) 0.40 (0.17, 0.95)  
  <35 11 (50%) 6 (27%) 5 (23%) 1  
Gender 0.126
  Male 22 (35%) 26 (41%) 15 (24%) 1.54 (0.89, 2.68)  
  Female 38 (29%) 45 (34%) 48 (37%) 1  
  1. aOdds ratios are based on cumulative logit model and compare the odds of being not vulnerable versus being vulnerable or very vulnerable. For example, the odds ratio of 3.66 for the variable ‘Equine influenza control zone during the 2007 outbreak’ indicates that owners/managers residing in the restricted area in 2007 are 3.66 times more likely to perceive that they are not vulnerable to a future outbreak than those who resided in the special restricted area; bAgistment is the keeping of other owner’s horses for remuneration, whilst spelling is resting horses on pasture; cEquestrian events include dressage, showjumping, eventing, and endurance; dRodeo-style horse events include camp-drafting, cutting and barrel-racing; eSporting organisations include those relevant to horse showing, pony-club, rodeo-style, polo, equestrian and/or racing; fincluding farriers, dentists, chiropractors, trainers and coaches.