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Table 2 Results of univariable analyses for risk factors associated with FMD transmission between farms

From: Risk factors for the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease during the 2010 outbreak in Japan: a case–control study

  Level Cattle Pigs
Area A Area B Area A
Number of farms P-value Number of farms P-value Number of farms P-value
Case Control Case Control Case Control
Total   49 48   37 73   59 15  
General information on the farm           
Herd size large 31 18 0.011 35 21 <0.001 31 6 0.386
  small 18 30   2 52   28 9  
Fattening farm yes - - - - - - 13 9 0.007*
  no - -   - -   46 6  
Belong to a company group yes - - - - - - 8 7 0.009
  no - -   - -   51 8  
People movements           
Farmer visited other livestock farms yes 4 4 0.631 4 12 0.429 9 3 0.457
  no 45 44   33 61   50 12  
Farm staff commuted from outside yes 0 0 - 16 1 <0.001* 22 1 0.018*
  no 49 48   21 72   37 14  
Veterinarians visited the farm yes 3 4 0.488 10 5 0.004 0 1 0.203
  no 46 44   27 68   59 14  
Agricultural technicians visited the farm yes 0 4 0.056* 3 4 0.437 0 0 -
  no 49 44   34 69   59 15  
Staff of livestock related companies visited the farm yes 0 3 0.117* 13 1 <0.001* 18 3 0.323
  no 49 45   24 72   41 12  
Other livestock farmers visited the farm yes 1 4 0.175 1 6 0.249 0 1 0.203
  no 48 44   36 67   59 14  
Other people visited the farm yes 6 2 0.141* 5 6 0.289 8 0 0.147*
  no 43 46   32 67   51 15  
Vehicle movements           
Feed transport vehicles visited the farm yes 7 4 0.355 26 14 <0.001* 33 8 0.857
  no 42 44   11 59   26 7  
Farmer transported feed with own vehicle yes 26 22 0.477 3 22 0.009* 9 1 0.35
  no 23 26   34 51   50 14  
Carcass transport vehicles visited the farm yes 1 0 0.505 12 2 <0.001* 3 1 0.604
  no 48 48   25 71   56 14  
Bedding transport vehicles visited the farm yes 15 14 0.876 23 19 <0.001* 24 5 0.603
  no 34 34   14 54   35 10  
Farm management           
Farm equipment was shared with other farms yes 10 1 0.004* 4 2 0.097* 1 1 0.367
  no 39 47   33 71   58 14  
Manure was removed from the farm yes 7 10 0.396 3 11 0.237 9 1 0.35
  no 42 38   34 62   50 14  
Farm location           
Barn has physical barriers yes 21 30 0.053* 26 49 0.738 30 12 0.042*
  no 28 18   11 24   29 3  
A forest surrounds the farm yes 31 40 0.026* 25 57 0.232 34 12 0.111*
  no 18 8   12 16   25 3  
Housing located outside the farm yes 5 2 0.226 19 10 <0.001* 23 5 0.687
  no 44 46   18 63   36 10  
Barns bordered by a road yes 17 21 0.361 18 18 0.011* 33 4 0.043*
  no 32 27   19 55   26 11  
  1. * Variables included into a multivariable logistic regression model.