Comparison of the effects of oligosaccharide fractions vs. glucose/lactose controls on TNF-α response in unchallenged PBMCs. Relative TNF-α production compared to blank controls and 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals are given for all investigated incubations, including glucose/lactose controls (glucose/lactose ‘x%’ meaning corresponding with glucose/lactose concentrations of x% GOS). Significant differences are marked with lower case letters. a: Significant difference between oligosaccharide or glucose/lactose fractions and blank controls. b: Significant difference between oligosaccharide fractions and corresponding glucose/lactose controls.