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Table 2 Multilevel multivariable models of factors associated with pet ownership, dog ownership and cat ownership

From: Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

Outcome (predictor variable) No (n or median) Yes (n or median) Crude OR Crude 95%CI Crude P Adjusted OR Adjusted 95% CI Adjusted P
a) Any pet         
   Gender         
   Male 199 312 1      
Female 117 336 1.83 1.39-2.41 <0.001 2.00 1.44-2.79 <0.001
   Ethnicity         
   White 174 507 1      
   Non-white 76 53 0.24 0.16-0.35 <0.001 0.23 0.15-0.35 <0.001
Sibling status         
   Neither 183 311 1      
   Single 37 80 1.27 0.83-1.96 0.27 1.00 0.59-1.68 1.00
   Youngest 110 264 1.41 1.06-1.88 0.02 1.17 0.82-1.67 0.38
Deprivation score 39.2 41.2 1.00 0.99-1.01 0.86 1.01 1.00-1.02 0.06
b) Dog         
Gender         
   Male 338 173 1      
   Female 270 183 1.32 1.02-1.72 0.04 1.47 1.08-2.01 0.02
Ethnicity         
   White 397 284 1      
   Non-white 106 23 0.30 0.19-0.49 <0.001 0.23 0.13-0.39 <0.001
Sibling status         
   Neither 322 172 1      
   Single 79 38 0.90 0.59-1.38 0.63 0.79 0.46-1.33 0.37
   Youngest 220 154 1.31 0.99-1.73 0.06 1.17 0.84-1.63 0.35
Deprivation score 33.1 48.7 1.02 1.01-1.02 <0.001 1.02 1.01-1.03 <0.001
a) Cat         
Gender         
   Male 444 67 1      
   Female 356 97 1.81 1.28-2.54 0.001 1.58 1.08-2.32 0.02
Ethnicity         
   White 552 129 1      
   Non-white 114 15 0.56 0.32-1.00 0.05 0.69 0.38-1.26 0.23
Sibling status         
   Neither 419 75 1      
   Single 94 22 1.29 0.77-2.19 0.34 0.98 0.52-1.85 0.94
   Youngest 308 66 1.20 0.83-1.72 0.33 1.13 0.75-1.70 0.57
Deprivation score 40.85 40.85 1.00 0.99-1.01 0.87 1.00 0.99-1.01 0.98
  1. a) n=742. Hosmer-lemeshow=0.42.
  2. b) n=742. Hosmer-lemeshow=0.53.
  3. a) n=742. Hosmer-lemeshow=0.85.