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Table 2 Association between studied variables with disease-free and overall survival times

From: Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study

Variable Animals Recurrence or distant metastases Mean DFS time in months Р* Dead or euthanized dogs Mean OS time in months Р*
  N % N % (± SE)   N % (± SE)  
Total 85 100 26 30.6 5.3 (5.7)   22 25.8 11.9 (7.6)  
Animal factors           
Weight (kg)       NS     NS
<10 27 31.8 7 25.9 19.6 (1.6)   6 22.2 21.7 (1.2)  
10-23 39 45.9 11 28.2 18.3 (1.5)   10 25.6 20.0 (1.2)  
>23 19 22.3 8 42.1 15.8 (2.2)   6 31.6 19.2 (1.8)  
Spayed       NS     NS
No 72 84.7 21 29.2 18.4 (1.1)   17 23.6 20.7 (0.8)  
Yes 13 15.3 5 38.5 16.8 (2.7)   5 38.5 19.3 (1.9)  
Hormonal therapy b       NS     NS
No 74 90.2 23 31.1 18.0 (1.1)   19 25.7 20.5 (0.8)  
Yes 8 9.8 2 25.0 19.5 (2.9)   2 25.0 20.7 (2.4)  
Tumour factors           
Ulceration       NS     NS
No 74 87.1 21 28.4 18.6 (1.0)   17 23.0 21.0 (0.8)  
Yes 11 12.9 5 45.5 14.6 (3.2)   5 45.5 16.6 (2.8)  
Size       0.027     0.016
< 3 cm 47 55.3 10 21.3 20.3 (1.1)   8 17.0 22.1 (0.8)  
≥ 3 cm 38 44.7 16 42.1 15.5 (1.7)   14 36.8 18.3 (1.3)  
Necrosis       NS     NS
No 25 29.4 7 28.0 18.3 (1.9)   7 28.0 20.1 (1.5)  
Yes 60 70.6 19 31.2 18.0 (1.2)   15 25.0 20.5 (0.9)  
Squamous metaplasia       NS     NS
No 62 72.9 19 30.1 18.1 (1.2)   17 27.4 20.5 (0.9)  
Yes 23 27.1 7 30.4 18.1 (1.9)   5 21.7 20.4 (1.6)  
Mode of growth       0.007     0.022
Expansive 24 28.2 2 8.3 22.6 (0.9)   2 8.3 23.3 (0.7)  
Invasive 61 71.8 24 39.3 16.4 (1.3)   20 32.8 19.3 (0.9)  
Histological type       NS     0.023
Complex carcinomas 20 23.5 4 20.0 20.7 (1.6)   2 10.0 23.6 (0.3)  
Simple carcinomas 51 60.0 15 29.4 18.5 (1.3)   13 25.5 20.6 (0.9)  
Others 14 16.5 7 50.0 13.1 (2.9)   7 50.0 15.4 (2.4)  
Mitotic index       NS     NS
0-9/10hpf 36 42.4 10 27.8 18.6 (1.5)   9 25.0 20.9 (1.2)  
10-19/10hpf 25 29.4 6 24.0 18.9 (1.8)   4 16.0 21.2 (1.3)  
≥ 20/10hpf 24 28.2 10 41.7 16.7 (1.9)   9 37.5 19.1 (1.4)  
Histological grade       NS     0.025
I + II 58 68.2 14 24.1 19.3 (1.1)   11 19.0 21.8 (0.8)  
III 27 31.8 12 44.4 15.5 (1.9)   11 40.7 17.7 (1.6)  
RLN metastases a       0.017     0.005
No 47 71.2 10 21.3 20.2 (1.1)   8 17.0 22.2 (0.7)  
Yes 19 28.8 9 47.4 14.6 (2.4)   9 47.4 17.3 (2.1)  
Cancer cells           
MIB1 L.I. (%)       <0.001     <0.001
< 40 47 55.3 7 14.9 21.1 (1.03)   6 12.8 22.8 (0.7)  
≥ 40 38 44.7 19 50.0 14.4 (1.66)   16 42.1 17.5 (1.4)  
TIMP-2 (%)       NS     NS
< 25 32 37.6 7 21.9 19.7 (1.5)   5 15.6 21.6 (1.1)  
≥ 25 53 62.4 19 35.8 17.1 (1.3)   17 32.1 19.7 (1.0)  
VEGF-A (%)       NS     NS
< 50 47 55.3 14 29.8 18.4 (1.3)   10 21.3 21.1 (0.9)  
≥ 50 38 44.7 12 31.6 17.7 (1.5)   12 31.6 19.7 (1.0)  
Stromal cells           
uPA (%)       0.016     0.012
< 10 25 29.4 3 12.0 21.9 (1.1)   2 8.0 23.5 (0.4)  
≥ 10 60 70.6 23 38.3 16.5 (1.3)   20 33.3 19.1 (1.0)  
MMP-9 (%)       <0.001     <0.001
< 50 54 63.5 9 16.7 20.9 (0.9)   8 14.8 22.5 (0.7)  
≥ 50 31 36.5 17 54.8 13.2 (1.9)   14 45.2 16.7 (1.5)  
  1. a Lymph nodes were not submitted in 19 cases.
  2. b The information regarded hormonal therapy was impossible to obtain in three cases.
  3. *Log Rank test.
  4. NS – not significant.