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Table 1 Improvement of clinical signs during the study period as indicated by the number of calves in the clinical categories on admission (n = 121) and 24 hours after the initiation of therapy (n = 116)

From: Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

Clinical Categories (Score) On admission* After 24 h p value
n n
Posture/Ability to stand
 Standing up by itself (1) 7 12 < 0.001
 Standing up after encouragement (2) 53 99
 Standing securely after lifting (3) 7 4
 Insecurely, able to correct position if pushed (4) 14 1
 Insecurely, not able to correct position if pushed (5) 24 (29) -
 Sternal recumbency (6) 7 -
 Lateral recumbency (7) 4 -
Behavior
 Adequate reaction to acoustic and optical stimuli, very bright and alert (1) 18 48 < 0.001
 Adequate reaction to acoustic and optical stimuli (2) 37 62
 Delayed reaction to acoustic and optical stimuli (3) 42 6
 Calf reacts only to painful stimuli (e.g. venipuncture) (4) 15 (20) -
 No reaction to painful stimuli (5) 4 -
Suckling reflex
 Strong (1) 33 45 0.003
 Weak (2) 42 52
 Absent or chewing movements (3) 41 (46) 19
Palpebral reflex
 Eyelids are closed immediately and fully (1) 55 98 < 0.001
 Eyelids are closed immediately but not fully (2) 34 17
 Eyelids are closed with delay and not fully (3) 20 (24) 1
 Eyelids are not closed at all (4) 7 (8) -
Degree of enophthalmos #
 None (1) 41 99 < 0.001
 Slightly sunken (2) 31 (32) 13
 Moderately sunken (3) 26 (29) 4
 Severely sunken (4) 18 (19) -
Degree of skin tenting
 Resolution of skin tenting prompt (1) 8 35 < 0.001
 Slightly delayed (2) 23 45
 Moderately delayed (3) 38 (40) 32
 Skin tenting does not resolve spontaneously (4) 47 (50) 4  
  1. *Including calves that were not treated with the decision tree for reasons of expected treatment failure are indicated by brackets.
  2. # The bulbi were classified as sunken in cases of a visible gap between the eyeball and caruncula lacrimalis. The median measured eyeball recession (mm) in the four categories were 1, 4, 6, and 9, respectively.