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Table 3 Summary of exposure variables associated with PRRSV status in the univariable analysis (p≤0.2)

From: Risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and resulting challenges for effective disease surveillance

Variable name Value Number of PRRSV positive (%) Number of PRRSV negative (%) OR 95% CI P-value
Herd size <250 14 (31.1) 38 (48.1) 1.0   
(Number of sows) ≥250 31(68.9) 41(51.9) 2.0 0.9-4.4 0.06
Farm type outdoor 8 (17.8) 29 (34.5) 1.0   
  indoor 37 (82.2) 55 (65.5) 2.4 1.0-5.9 0.05
PRRS vaccine none 16 (34.8) 68 (80.0) 1.0   
  killed 2 (4.3) 6 (7.1) 1.4 0.2-7.6  
  live 28 (60.9) 11 (12.9) 10.8 4.4-26.2 <0.01
APP ELISA negative 7 (15.2) 29 (34.1) 1.0   
  positive 39 (84.8) 56 (65.9) 2.9 1.1-7.2 0.02
Avian-like H1N1 negative 31 (68.9) 74 (87.1) 1.0   
  positive 14 (31.1) 11 (12.9) 3.0 1.2-7.4 0.01
Age at weaning in days 21-27 30 (65.2) 33 (40.7) 1.0   
  ≥28 16 (34.8) 48 (59.3) 0.3 0.1-0.7 <0.01
Disposal of dead pigs incineration 6 (13.0) 33 (42.9) 1.0   
  collection 40 (87.0) 44 (57.1) 5.0 1.8-13.1 <0.01
Frequency of live never 14 (31.1) 22 (28.2) 1.0   
animals 1-6/year 11 (24.4) 45 (57.7) 0.3 0.1-0.9  
  >6/year 20 (44.5) 11 (14.1) 2.8 1.0-7.7 <0.01
Pig density* <15000 20 (43.5) 68 (81.0) 1.0   
  ≥15000 26 (56.5) 16 (19.0) 5.5 2.4-12.2 <0.01
Other production species no 34 (73.9) 44 (53.0) 1.0   
  yes 12 (26.1) 39 (47.0) 0.4 0.1-0.8 0.02
Number of farm 1-2 5 (10.8) 28 (35.0) 1.0   
workers 3 16 (34.8) 20 (25.0) 4.4 1.4-14.2  
  4 14 (30.4) 12 (15.0) 6.5 1.9-22.2  
  >4 11 (23.9) 20 (25.0) 3.1 0.9-10.2 0.01
Use of straw yards no 16 (38.1) 43 (53.1) 1.0   
  yes 26 (61.9) 38 (46.9) 1.8 0.8-3.9 0.11
Ventilation weaners natural 22 (47.8) 54 (64.3) 1.0   
  artificial 14 (30.4) 20 (23.8) 1.7 0.7-3.9  
  both 10 (21.7) 10 (11.9) 2.4 0.9-6.7 0.15
Ventilation growers natural 26 (56.5) 61 (73.5) 1.0   
  artificial 7 (15.2) 9 (10.8) 1.8 0.6-5.4  
  both 13 (28.3) 13 (15.7) 2.3 0.9-5.7 0.13
Ventilation finishers natural 22 (51.1) 60 (72.3) 1.0   
  artificial 14 (32.6) 12 (14.5) 3.1 1.2-7.9  
  both 7 (16.3) 11 (13.2) 1.7 0.6-5.0 0.04
Ventilation lactating natural 16 (34.8) 43 (51.8) 1.0   
sows artificial 21 (45.6) 28 (33.7) 2.0 0.9-4.5  
  both 9 (19.6) 12 (14.5) 2.0 0.7-5.6 0.17
Lighting weaners natural 15 (32.6) 41 (48.8) 1.0   
  artificial 13 (28.3) 17 (20.2) 2.1 0.8-5.3  
  both 18 (39.1) 26 (31.0) 1.9 0.8-4.4 0.19
Lighting lactating natural 9 (19.6) 30 (36.1) 1.0   
sows artificial 21 (45.6) 22 (26.5) 3.2 1.2-8.3  
  both 16 (34.8) 31 (37.4) 1.7 0.6-4.5 0.04
Presence of cattle no 40 (87.0) 64 (77.1) 1.0   
  yes 6 (13.0) 19 (22.9) 0.5 0.2-1.3 0.18
Presence of poultry no 41 (89.1) 64 (77.1) 1.0   
  yes 5 (10.9) 19 (22.9) 0.4 0.1-1.1 0.10
Large white in breed 0 2 (4.4) 13 (16.3) 1.0   
composition in % 1-25 36 (80.0) 55 (68.7) 4.2 0.9-19.9  
  >25 7 (15.6) 12 (15.0) 3.8 0.6-21.9 0.11
  1. *total number of pigs within 10km radius from the farm, OR: odds ratio, CI: confidence interval.