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Table 2 Performance comparison between combined and separate electrical (ECG) and audio (PCG) foetus sensing for pregnancy detection

From: Pregnancy detection and monitoring in cattle via combined foetus electrocardiogram and phonocardiogram signal processing

Recording Sensitivity Specificity
ECG only (no rejections) 85.2% 70.1%
PCG only ≥ 20 weeks 87.7% 73.2%
ECG and PCG combined (19% rejected) 87.6% 74.6%