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Table 4 Animal-level risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity, adjusted for state and management system: results from hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression models

From: A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

Risk factor and level OR 95% CI (OR) P-value #
All Animals    
Breed    
Bos taurus 1*
  Gudali 1.52 0.65 - 3.54 0.334
  Bunaji 1.52 0.66 - 3.50 0.327
  Other B. indicus 1.59 0.67 - 3.75 0.293
B. taurus x B. indicus 1.71 0.71 - 4.11 0.230
Sex    
  Females 1
  Males 1.98 1.54 - 2.54 <0.001
Age    
  < 4 years 1
  4 - 5 years 1.70 1.26 - 2.31 0.001
  5 - 7 years 2.50 1.82 - 3.44 <0.001
  > 7 years 3.82 2.72 - 5.36 <0.001
Females Only    
Pregnancy status    
  Pregnant 1
  Non-pregnant 1.84 1.49 - 2.27 <0.001
Lactation status    
  Lactating 1
  Non-lactating 1.17 0.96 - 1.43 0.112
Confounders    
State    
  Kaduna 1
  Kano 1.09 0.66 - 1.78 0.737
  Adamawa 1.54 0.96 - 2.45 0.073
Management system    
  Agro-pastoral 1
  Commercial 1.06 0.55 - 2.04 0.860
  Zero-grazing 1.32 0.53 - 3.31 0.555
  Pastoral 3.52 2.50 - 4.95 <0.001
Random effects    
  LGA 1.000
  Ward <0.001
  Herd <0.001
  1. # Wald P-value.
  2. * Reference level.