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Table 2 Major causes of death, histo-pathology and etiology findings in European bat species.

From: Diseases in free-ranging bats from Germany

Bat species Cause of death (%) Main histo-pathological findings Bacterial infection (%)
Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) Trauma (42.0) 1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia Pasteurella multocida (68.2)
  Organ lesions (23.9) 2. Mild to severe enteritis Enterococcus faecalis  
  Bacterial infection (9.4) 3. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis Enterobacteriaceae  
  Others* (24.6)   Bacillus cereus  
Nathusius' pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) Trauma (36.4) 1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia Pasteurella multocida (28.6)
  Organ lesions (18.2) 2. Necroses (liver, kidney) Staphylococcus aureus (28.6)
  Bacterial infection (18.2) 3. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis Enterobacteriaceae  
  Others* (27.2)    
Common noctule (Nyctalus noctula) Trauma§ (70.7) 1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia Enterobacteriaceae (Salmonella species, Escherichia coli)  
  Organ lesions (12.0) 2. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis Staphylococcus aureus  
  Bacterial infection (4.3) 3. Mild to severe enteritis   
  Others* (13.0) 4. Foreign body granulomatous glossitisf   
    5. Pulmonary arterial hypertension   
Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) Trauma (22.6) 1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia Enterococcus species (55.6)
  Organ lesions (20.8) 2. Inflammatory cell infiltrates (liver) Enterobacteriaceae  
  Bacterial infection (13.2) 3. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis Pasteurella multocida  
  Others* (43.4) 4. Mild to severe enteritis Aerococcus viridans  
Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii) Organ lesions (41.2) 1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia Enterococcus faecium  
  Trauma (11.8) 2. Mild to severe enteritis   
  Bacterial infection (5.9) 3. Inflammatory cell infiltrates (liver)   
  Others* (41.1)    
Parti-coloured bat (Vespertilio murinus) Organ lesions (30.4) 1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia Pasteurella multocida (42.9)
  Bacterial infection (26.1) 2. Necroses (various organs) Enterococcus species (42.9)
  Trauma (21.7) 3. Fibrinous suppurative peri-/epicarditis Enterobacter species  
  Others* (21.7) 4. Severe multiorgan hemosiderosis   
Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) Bacterial infection (20.8) 1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia Pasteurella multocida (40.0)
  Organ lesions (16.7) 2. Necroses (various organs) Enterobacteriaceae  
  Trauma (12.5)    
  Others* (50.0)    
Whiskered bat (Myotis mystacinus) Trauma (26.3) 1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia Pasteurella multocida (33.3)
  Bacterial infection (15.8) 2. Renal/intestinal coccidiosis Enterobacteriaceae  
  Organ lesions (5.3) 3. Mild bile duct proliferation Enterococcus faecalis  
  Others* (52.6)   Clostridium sordellii  
Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) Trauma (50.0) 1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia Cedecea davisae  
  Organ lesions (10.0) 2. Mild to focal severe enteritis   
  Others* (40.0) 3. Severe necrotizing hepatitis   
Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) Trauma (35.3) 1. Mild interstitial pneumonia Enterococcus faecalis  
  Organ lesions (11.8) 2. Mild to moderate enteritis   
  Bacterial infection (5.9)    
  Others* (47.0)    
  1. Mainly due to cat predation.
  2. Pathological changes of unknown etiology.
  3. § Mainly due to roost destruction, trapped individuals and wing fractures of unknown cause.
  4. * Pulmonary edema, anemia, dehydration, hypoglycemia, hypo-/hyperthermia, no significant findings.
  5. fAssociated with chitinous body parts of prey insects [30].