Skip to main content

Table 2 The clonal lineage and resistance profile of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pig noses in Switzerland.

From: The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and the presence of an unusual sequence type ST49 in slaughter pigs in Switzerland

       Antibiotic resistance genes and resistance breakpoints (mg/L)b
MLST spatype SCCmectype Number of isolates Farma Representative strain FOX PEN TET ERY CLI STR TIA SPC TMP SMX CIP
       (>4) (>0.125) (>2) (>2) (>0.5) (>16) (>2) (>128) (>2) (>128) (>1)
2009                 
   ST1 t2279 IVc 1 TG3 IMD887-09 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) erm(A) erm(A)    ant(9)-Ia    +
   ST398 t011 V 1 SG1 IMD358-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)     vga(A)v     
   ST398 t011 V 1 TG1 IMD355-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C)    +    
   ST398 t011 V 1 LU2 IMD1753-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)      +    
   ST398 t034 V 1 BE1 IMD1116-09 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A) str + ant(9)-Ia dfr(G)   
   ST398 t1451 V 1 LU1 IMD1270-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C) str vga(A)v     
   ST49 t208 V 1 TG2 IMD1000-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C)   vga(A)v    +  
   ST49 t208 V 1 SG2 IMD1771-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)     vga(A)v    +  
2010                 
   ST398 t034 V 16 TG5 TG8 TG9 TG10 LU3 LU4 LU5 LU6 BE2 BE3 BE4 AG1 JU1 SG3 SG5 ZH1 IMD49-10 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A) str + ant(9)-Ia dfr(G)   
   ST398 t034 V 1 TG 7 IMD704-10 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A)   + ant(9)-Ia dfr(G)   
   ST398 t011 V 1 AI1 IMD233-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C)    +    
   ST49 t208 V 3 SG4 SG6 TG4 IMD426-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)     vga(A)v    +  
   ST49 t208 V 1 TG6 IMD603-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A)   vga(A)v    +  
   ST49 t208 V 1 AG2 IMD2002-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)    str vga(A)v    +  
  1. a) Geographical origin of the farm: letters indicate the Cantons (AI, Appenzell Innen Rhodes; AG, Aargau; BE, Bern; JU, Jura; LU, Luzern; SG, St Gallen; TG, Thurgau; ZH, Zurich). and numbers indicate individual farms.
  2. b) CIP, ciprofloxacin; CLI, clindamycin; ERY, erythromycin; FOX, cefoxitin; PEN, penicillin; SPC, spectinomycin; SMX, sulphamethoxazole; STR, streptomycin; TET, tetracycline; TIA, tiamulin; TMP, trimethoprim. The MIC breakpoints (in micrograms per millilitre) that determine resistance were recommended from EUCAST for S. aureus http://www.eucast.org. Resistance breakpoints for tiamulin, spectinomycin, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole were tentatively derived from epidemiological MIC cut-off values from EUCAST.
  3. Antibiotic resistance genes and their functions are indicated as follows: ant(9)-Ia, spectinomycin adenylnucleotidyltransferase; blaZ, β-lactamase; dfr(G), dihydrofolate reductase; erm(A) and erm(C), macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins B rRNA methylase; mecA, penicillin-binding protein PBP2a; str, streptomycin adenyltransferase; tet(K), tetracycline efflux protein; tet(M), tetracycline ribosomal protection protein; vga(A)v, pleuromutilins and streptogramins A ATP binding transporter.
  4. ND, not detected; +, The MIC values were greater than the resistance breakpoint, but the resistance mechanism remained uncharacterised; blank spaces indicate no resistance