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Table 2 The clonal lineage and resistance profile of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pig noses in Switzerland.

From: The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and the presence of an unusual sequence type ST49 in slaughter pigs in Switzerland

       Antibiotic resistance genes and resistance breakpoints (mg/L)b
MLST spatype SCCmectype Number of isolates Farma Representative strain FOX PEN TET ERY CLI STR TIA SPC TMP SMX CIP
       (>4) (>0.125) (>2) (>2) (>0.5) (>16) (>2) (>128) (>2) (>128) (>1)
   ST1 t2279 IVc 1 TG3 IMD887-09 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) erm(A) erm(A)    ant(9)-Ia    +
   ST398 t011 V 1 SG1 IMD358-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)     vga(A)v     
   ST398 t011 V 1 TG1 IMD355-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C)    +    
   ST398 t011 V 1 LU2 IMD1753-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)      +    
   ST398 t034 V 1 BE1 IMD1116-09 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A) str + ant(9)-Ia dfr(G)   
   ST398 t1451 V 1 LU1 IMD1270-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C) str vga(A)v     
   ST49 t208 V 1 TG2 IMD1000-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C)   vga(A)v    +  
   ST49 t208 V 1 SG2 IMD1771-09 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)     vga(A)v    +  
   ST398 t034 V 16 TG5 TG8 TG9 TG10 LU3 LU4 LU5 LU6 BE2 BE3 BE4 AG1 JU1 SG3 SG5 ZH1 IMD49-10 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A) str + ant(9)-Ia dfr(G)   
   ST398 t034 V 1 TG 7 IMD704-10 mecA mecA blaZ tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A)   + ant(9)-Ia dfr(G)   
   ST398 t011 V 1 AI1 IMD233-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(C) erm(C)    +    
   ST49 t208 V 3 SG4 SG6 TG4 IMD426-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)     vga(A)v    +  
   ST49 t208 V 1 TG6 IMD603-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K) erm(A) erm(A)   vga(A)v    +  
   ST49 t208 V 1 AG2 IMD2002-10 mecA mecA tet(M) tet(K)    str vga(A)v    +  
  1. a) Geographical origin of the farm: letters indicate the Cantons (AI, Appenzell Innen Rhodes; AG, Aargau; BE, Bern; JU, Jura; LU, Luzern; SG, St Gallen; TG, Thurgau; ZH, Zurich). and numbers indicate individual farms.
  2. b) CIP, ciprofloxacin; CLI, clindamycin; ERY, erythromycin; FOX, cefoxitin; PEN, penicillin; SPC, spectinomycin; SMX, sulphamethoxazole; STR, streptomycin; TET, tetracycline; TIA, tiamulin; TMP, trimethoprim. The MIC breakpoints (in micrograms per millilitre) that determine resistance were recommended from EUCAST for S. aureus Resistance breakpoints for tiamulin, spectinomycin, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole were tentatively derived from epidemiological MIC cut-off values from EUCAST.
  3. Antibiotic resistance genes and their functions are indicated as follows: ant(9)-Ia, spectinomycin adenylnucleotidyltransferase; blaZ, β-lactamase; dfr(G), dihydrofolate reductase; erm(A) and erm(C), macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins B rRNA methylase; mecA, penicillin-binding protein PBP2a; str, streptomycin adenyltransferase; tet(K), tetracycline efflux protein; tet(M), tetracycline ribosomal protection protein; vga(A)v, pleuromutilins and streptogramins A ATP binding transporter.
  4. ND, not detected; +, The MIC values were greater than the resistance breakpoint, but the resistance mechanism remained uncharacterised; blank spaces indicate no resistance