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Table 5 Treatment means (n = 12 animals per treatment) with SE1 for plasma urea, βHB and creatine kinase activity pre (-0.25 h) and post-transport (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h).

From: Effect of road transport for up to 24 hours followed by twenty-four hour recovery on live weight and physiological responses of bulls

Transport -0.25 h pre 0 h post 1 h post 2 h post 4 h post 6 h post 8 h post 12 h post 24 h post SE1 Effect of time2
Urea (mmol/L)
J 0 2.3a 4.1b 4.1b 4.3b 4.6b 4.6b 4.3b 3.5b 2.9ab 0.29 P = 0.001
J 6 2.4a 2.9b 3.0b 3.2b 3.7b 4.2b 4.5b 4.4b 3.6ab 0.14 P = 0.001
J 9 3.2a 3.5b 3.6b 3.9b 4.1ab 4.4ab 4.3ab 3.7ab 2.9ab 0.25 P = 0.001
J 12 3.3a 4.1b 4.3b 4.5b 4.8b 4.7b 4.2b 3.5ab 2.6ab 0.19 P = 0.001
J 18 2.2a 4.3b 4.5b 4.6b 4.8b 4.5b 4.0b 3.2b 2.3ab 0.17 P = 0.001
J 24 2.4a 5.4b 5.4b 5.5b 5.7b 5.7b 5.4b 4.3b 2.8ab 0.27 P = 0.001
βHB (mmol/L)
J 0 0.18a 0.22ab 0.20ab 0.19ab 0.25ab 0.29b 0.36b 0.28b 0.29b 0.03 P = 0.001
J 6 0.17a 0.16ab 0.17ab 0.22b 0.25b 0.25 0.25b 0.24b 0.26b 0.01 P = 0.001
J 9 0.18a 0.16ab 0.19ab 0.25b 0.31b 0.32b 0.30b 0.28b 0.30b 0.02 P = 0.001
J 12 0.20a 0.16ab 0.17ab 0.23ab 0.28b 0.30b 0.29b 0.25b 0.32b 0.15 P = 0.001
J 18 0.18b 0.20ab 0.14ab 0.18ab 0.20ab 0.28b 0.27b 0.28b 0.31b 0.02 P = 0.001
J 24 0.20a 0.18ab 0.14ab 0.17ab 0.22ab 0.27ab 0.36b 0.39b 0.34b 0.20 P = 0.001
CK (U/L)
J 0 159.6a 437.1b 511.4b 551.4b 552.4b 524.8b 483.6b 430.4ab 381.0ab 60.3 P = 0.86
J 6 160.6a 377.9ab 443.9ab 521.1ab 627.0b 691.4b 605.6 b 487.42b 427.2ab 69.5 P = 0.44
J 9 242.2a 428.3ab 522.7b 469.7ab 511.1ab 469.0ab 357.4ab 364.5ab 319.6ab 286.0 P = 0.53
J 12 187.7a 368.5ab 398.2ab 548.3b 545.0b 497.3b 494.8b 431.7b 404.6ab 77.5 P = 0.04
J 18 159.6a 472.9ab 497.1ab 467.1b 445.3b 477.9b 475.7b 437.5b 393.4ab 124.0 P = 0.17
J 24 162.3a 496.20b 545.7b 598.6b 598.7b 600.0b 631.6b 552.0b 340.3ab 92.8 P = 0.02
  1. Control = J 0 not transported; animals transported for journey (J) durations of 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 hours (h) by road at a stocking density of 1.02 m2 per animal. a,b,within a row, means differ from pre-transport baseline (-0.25 h pre-transport) at P < 0.05. 1Standard error (SE). 2Effect of time (exact P value).