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Table 3 Haematological measurements.

From: Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

Item Reference range Summer Winter Pvalue
   Outdoor Indoor Outdoor Indoor Production system, P Season, S P × S
Red Blood Cells (×106/μL) 5 - 10 9.38 ± 0.23 9.53 ± 0.14 8.24 ± 0.13 9.15 ± 0.21 0.022 < 0.001 0.012
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 8 - 15 11.65 ± 0.19 12.98 ± 0.17 11.14 ± 0.26 12.98 ± 0.27 <0.001 0.145 0.145
Haematocrit (%) 24 - 46 37.76 ± 0.66 39.85 ± 0.52 34.99 ± 0.79 40.43 ± 0.66 < 0.001 0.043 0.003
  1. Haematological parameters in indoor and outdoor cattle during summer and winter. Values are depicted as mean ± SEM. P value for the effects of the production system (P), season (S) and production system × season (P × S) interaction are indicated. Physiological reference ranges have previously been determined [53].