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Table 2 Total and differential leukocyte counts.

From: Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

Item Reference range Summer Winter Pvalue
   Outdoor Indoor Outdoor Indoor Production system, P Season, S P × S
WBC (×109/L) 4.00 - 12.00 10.41 ± 0.50 9.91 ± 0.53 10.67 ± 0.50 10.01 ± 0.50 0.416 0.712 0.726
Lymphocytes (×109/L) 2.50 - 7.50 6.04 ± 0.17 5.82 ± 0.16 6.17 ± 0.17 5.75 ± 0.16 0.914 0.617 0.725
Neutrophils (×109/L) 0.60 - 4.00 3.79 ± 0.16 3.53 ± 0.15 3.63 ± 0.17 3.56 ± 0.15 0.742 0.491 0.518
Eosinophils (×109/L) 0.10 - 1.70 0.46 ± 0.04 0.56 ± 0.04 0.72 ± 0.04 0.63 ± 0.04 0.035 0.464 0.030
  1. Total and differential leukocyte counts from indoor and outdoor animals during summer and winter. Values are depicted as mean ± SEM. P value for the effects of the production system (P), season (S) and production system × season (P × S) interaction are indicated. Physiological reference ranges were indicated according to Knowles et al. [20].