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Table 1 Management practices in 17 infected farms

From: Observed management practices in relation to the risk of infection with paratuberculosis and to the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosisin Swiss dairy and beef herds

Variables (number of farms dairy/beef) Number of farms (%)
  Dairy Beef
General management practices   
 Stall system (10/7)   
  Free stall barn 8 (80) 7 (100)
  Tethered stable 2 (20) 0 (0)
 Summer mountain pastures (10/7)   
  Heifers 7 (70) 0 (0)
  Heifers and cows 1 (10) 0 (0)
  Whole herd (calves included) 1 (10) 4 (57)
 No purchase1 (10/7) 1 (10) 1 (14)
Calving facilities and management   
 Type of calving pen (10/7)   
  Individual calving pen 5 (50) 5 (71)
  Group calving pen 3 (30) 1 (14)
  No calving pen 2 (20) 1 (14)
 Calvings in the barn (8/6)   
  10-50% 2 (25) 2 (33)
  >50% 0 (0) 1 (17)
 Cleaning of calving pen (8/6)   
  Change of bedding after each calving 1 (13) 0 (0)
Possibilities of contamination from cows to calves or heifers
 Preweaned calves (10)   
  Kept in same building as cows 4 (40) N/A
  Direct contamination of calf area with cow manure 5 (50) N/A
  Direct contamination of feed with cow manure 1 (10) N/A
  Direct contamination of water supply with cow manure 2 (20) N/A
 Weaned calves (10)   
  Kept in same building as cows 3 (30) N/A
  Direct contamination of calf area with cow manure 3 (30) N/A
  Direct contamination of feed with cow manure 1 (10) N/A
  Direct contamination of water supply with cow manure 0 (0) N/A
 Heifers >1 year (10/7)   
  Kept in same building as cows 4 (40) 5 (71)
  Direct contamination of heifer area with cow manure 2 (20) 5 (71)
  Direct contamination of feed with cow manure 0 (0) 1 (14)
  Direct contamination of water supply with cow manure 1 (10) 1 (14)
  1. 1No purchase: Herds with no purchase were closed herds that bought no animals at all.
  2. N/A: not applicable.