Pharmacology and toxicology

Section edited by Wolfgang Bäumer and Manfred Kietzmann

The pharmacology and toxicology section covers all aspects of research involved with basic and clinical pharmacology and toxicology, including pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomics, randomized controlled clinical trials and rational pharmacology in livestock, companion animals, equines, wild animals, fish and laboratory animals.

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  1. Research article

    Sedation levels in dogs: a validation study

    The aim of this study was to assess validation evidence for a sedation scale for dogs. We hypothesized that the chosen sedation scale would be unreliable when used by different raters and show poor discriminat...

    Marika C. Wagner, Kent G. Hecker and Daniel S. J. Pang

    BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:110

    Published on: 18 April 2017

  2. Research article

    Refinement of intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care and American Veterinary Medical Association classify intraperitoneal (IP) pentobarbital as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. However, national guidelines do not exist...

    Katie K Zatroch, Cameron G. Knight, Julie N. Reimer and Daniel S. J. Pang

    BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:60

    Published on: 21 February 2017

  3. Research article

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of sarafloxacin against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Muscovy ducks

    This study focused on utilizing pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) modeling to optimize therapeutic dosage regimens of sarafloxacin against avian pathogenic Escherichia. coli O78 strain in Muscovy ducks. T...

    Yang Yu, Yu Feng Zhou, Jian Sun, Wei Shi, Xiao Ping Liao and Ya Hong Liu

    BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:47

    Published on: 10 February 2017

  4. Research article

    Clinical evaluation of a combination therapy of imepitoin with phenobarbital in dogs with refractory idiopathic epilepsy

    Imepitoin was tested as a combination treatment with phenobarbital in an open-label mono-centre cohort study in dogs with drug-resistant epilepsy. Diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy was based on clinical finding...

    Jasmin Neßler, Chris Rundfeldt, Wolfgang Löscher, Draginja Kostic, Thomas Keefe and Andrea Tipold

    BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:33

    Published on: 25 January 2017

  5. Research article

    Pharmacokinetics and in vitro efficacy of salicylic acid after oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid in horses

    Although acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is not frequently used as a therapeutic agent in horses, its metabolite SA is of special interest in equestrianism since it is a natural component of many plants used as hor...

    Kathrin Buntenkötter, Maren Osmers, Ina Schenk, Wilhelm Schänzer, Marc Machnik, Michael Düe and Manfred Kietzmann

    BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:28

    Published on: 19 January 2017

  6. Research article

    The gastro protective effects of Cibotium barometz hair on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Cibotium barometz is a medical herb used traditionally in the Malaysian peninsula for several ailments, including gastric ulcer. The aim of this study was assessment the anti-ulcer eff...

    Nahla Saeed AL-Wajeeh, Maryam Hajerezaie, Suzita Mohd Noor, Mohammed Farouq Halabi, Nawal Al-Henhena, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan, Sareh Kamran, Pouya Hassandarvish, Abdrabuh N. Shwter, Hamed karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali and Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

    BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:27

    Published on: 19 January 2017

  7. Research article

    The using of a piglets as a model for evaluating the dipyrone hematological effects

    Dipyrone (MET, metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used both in human and in veterinary medicine. After oral administration, is broken down rapidly to metabolites which largely retai...

    Artur Burmańczuk, Andrzej Milczak, Tomasz Grabowski, Monika Osypiuk and Cezary Kowalski

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:263

    Published on: 25 November 2016

  8. Research article

    Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach

    Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to e...

    Zhoumeng Lin, Matthew Cuneo, Joan D. Rowe, Mengjie Li, Lisa A. Tell, Shayna Allison, Jan Carlson, Jim E. Riviere and Ronette Gehring

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:258

    Published on: 18 November 2016

  9. Research article

    In vitro susceptibility of four antimicrobials against Riemerella anatipestifer isolates: a comparison of minimum inhibitory concentrations and mutant prevention concentrations for ceftiofur, cefquinome, florfenicol, and tilmicosin

    Mutant prevention concentration (MPC) is an alternative pharmacodynamic parameter that has been used to measure antimicrobial activity and represents the propensities of antimicrobial agents to select resistan...

    Yafei Li, Yanan Zhang, Huanzhong Ding, Xian Mei, Wei Liu, Jiaxiong Zeng and Zhenling Zeng

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:250

    Published on: 9 November 2016

  10. Research article

    Pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD integration of ceftiofur after a single intravenous, subcutaneous and subcutaneous-LA administration in lactating goats

    Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually ass...

    Emilio Fernández-Varón, Carlos Cárceles-García, Juan Manuel Serrano-Rodríguez and Carlos M. Cárceles-Rodríguez

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:232

    Published on: 13 October 2016

  11. Research article

    Evaluation of injectable robenacoxib for the treatment of post-operative pain in cats: results of a randomized, masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Few pharmaceuticals are registered in cats for the management of post-operative pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the field efficacy and safety of an injectable formulation of th...

    Stephen King, Elizabeth S. Roberts and Jonathan N. King

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:215

    Published on: 29 September 2016

  12. Research article

    Residues of chlortetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in intestinal content and feces of pigs due to cross-contamination of feed

    Cross-contamination of feed with low concentrations of antimicrobials can occur at production, transport and/or farm level. Concerns are rising about possible effects of this contaminated feed on resistance se...

    Laura E. J. Peeters, Els Daeseleire, Mathias Devreese, Geertrui Rasschaert, Annemieke Smet, Jeroen Dewulf, Marc Heyndrickx, Hein Imberechts, Freddy Haesebrouck, Patrick Butaye and Siska Croubels

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:209

    Published on: 20 September 2016

  13. Research article

    Serum concentration of ketamine and antinociceptive effects of ketamine and ketamine-lidocaine infusions in conscious dogs

    Central sensitization is a potential severe consequence of invasive surgical procedures. It results in postoperative and potentially chronic pain enhancement. It results in postoperative pain enhancement; clin...

    Ubedullah Kaka, Bullo Saifullah, Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Yong Meng Goh, Sharida Fakurazi, Asmatullah Kaka, Atique Ahmed Behan, Mahdi Ebrahimi and Hui Cheng Chen

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:198

    Published on: 9 September 2016

  14. Research article

    Effect of intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters in equine naturally occurring superficial digital flexor tendinopathies – a randomized prospective controlled clinical trial

    Regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects on tendinopathies have been attributed to blood-derived biologicals. To date the evidence for the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of natur...

    Florian Geburek, Moritz Gaus, Hans T. M. van Schie, Karl Rohn and Peter M. Stadler

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:191

    Published on: 7 September 2016

  15. Research article

    Modelling concentrations of antimicrobial drugs: comparative pharmacokinetics of cephalosporin antimicrobials and accuracy of allometric scaling in food-producing and companion animals

    To optimize antimicrobial dosing in different animal species, pharmacokinetic information is necessary. Due to the plethora of cephalosporin antimicrobials and animal species in which they are used, assessment...

    Femke J. Taverne, Ingeborg M. van Geijlswijk, Dick J. J. Heederik, Jaap A. Wagenaar and Johan W. Mouton

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:185

    Published on: 6 September 2016

  16. Research article

    In vitro antimicrobial activities of animal-used quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against mycobacteria, mycoplasma and fungi

    The quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) were known as potent antibacterial agents. For the purpose of evaluating the bioactivity of existing animal-used QdNOs drugs against representative pathogenic microorganism...

    Yan Zhao, Guyue Cheng, Haihong Hao, Yuanhu Pan, Zhenli Liu, Menghong Dai and Zonghui Yuan

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:186

    Published on: 6 September 2016

  17. Research article

    Pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical field study to evaluate the effectiveness of bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension for the provision of post-surgical analgesia in dogs undergoing stifle surgery

    Local anesthetics are an important component of perioperative pain management, but the duration of action of available products is limited. We hypothesized that a single local infiltration of a novel bupivacai...

    B. Duncan X. Lascelles, Lesley C. Rausch-Derra, Jessica A. Wofford and Margie Huebner

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:168

    Published on: 17 August 2016

  18. Research article

    Has intravenous lidocaine improved the outcome in horses following surgical management of small intestinal lesions in a UK hospital population?

    Perioperative lidocaine treatment is commonly used in horses that undergo surgical treatment of colic, to prevent or treat postoperative ileus and reduce the effects of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury....

    Shebl E. Salem, Chris J. Proudman and Debra C. Archer

    BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:157

    Published on: 27 July 2016

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